Oil Palm chin leh a nghawng

Zirbingna hmun hrang hranga Ecosystem leh a kaihhnawih zirbing thin – Dr. David C. Vanlalfakawma, Asst. Professor, Dept. of Forestry, MZU te, C. Zohmingsangi, Research Scholar, Dept. of Environmental Sciences, MZU te, Dr. Lallianpuii, Scientist C, Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun te leh Dr. Saipari Sailo, Scientist C, Zoological Survey of India, Jabalpur ten mahni zirbing lam ṭheuh aṭanga Oil Palm chungchanga an thlirna te hlawmkhawmin an rawn chhawp chhuak e.

Oil Palm hi Mizoramah hian kum 2000 – 01 chho khan Agriculture Department lama thawktu ten, India chhim lam aṭangin, enchhin turin an la lut a, kum 2004 – 05 aṭanga hma la ṭanin, kum 2005 – 06 aṭang khan vung taka kal chhohpui a ni a, India Hmarchhak state-te zinga Oil Palm chîng hmasa ber kan ni a, “The Mizoram Oil Palm (Regulation of Production and Processing) Act, 2004” hmangin dan mumal tak hmanga buaipui a ni.

National Edible Oil Mission-Oil Palm (NMEO-OP) scheme-in India rama Palm Oil thar chhuah tih pun tumin, tun aia lêt thum a tam, metric ton nuai 11 thar chhuak thei turin hma a la mêk a, chumi hlenchhuak tur chuan Oil Palm hi ram hectare nuai 10 a zaua phun belh a ngai dawn tihna a ni. He Scheme hmang hian Mizoramah pawh hmalak tumin inbuatsaih chhoh mêk a ni a, Central sorkar-in ₹11,040 Cr zet a thehchhuah tur aṭanga cheng engemawzat dawn hi keini ang State pachhe deuh tan chuan a itawm dawn ngar ngar teh e.

Kan duh hluaia kan bawh huk, kan duh leh takloh, kan hnawl mêk tharthawh leh tumna hian ngaihdan hrang hrang a cho chhuak a, a duh pawl leh duh lo pawl, a do pawl leh a fakmawi pawl an zi nuk mai. Tun ṭumah hian zirbingna hmun hrang hranga Ecosystem leh a kaihhnawih zirbing a, thlir dan hrang hranga thlir thinten, mahni zirbing lam ṭheuh aṭanga thlirna te hlawmkhawmin kan rawn thawh ve thung dawn a ni.

Serchhip rama Oil Palm hmun a ṭhen an kar a, a ṭhen an hal a, a ṭhen a la ding! 13.01.2021

Oil Palm leh leiṭhatna

Lei a ṭhat leh ṭhat loh tehkhawng ber chu Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) an tih te leh soil nutrients (thlaite mamawh chaw ṭha leia awm) te hi a ni a. Oil Palm hmun hi a kum a pun ang zelin heng, leilunga leiṭha kan tih hrang hrang (SOC & Soil nutrients) te hi nasa takin a tlahniam zel a ni tih hi khawvel ram hrang hranga Scientist ten an hmuhchhuah tawh a ni a; India ram leh Mizoram chhung ngeia zirna-ah pawh hetiang tho hi hmuhchhuah a ni.  Thlai mal-chin dang – Kuhva leh ṭhelret te nena khaikhin pawhin Oil Palm hmuna leiṭha tlakhniam dan hi a nasa bik hle bawk.

Oil Palm hi leiṭha leh tui heh tak mai, “Heavy Feeder” a ni a. Kum 25 an nih chhoh chinah phei chuan ṭhelret, kuhva leh thlai kumhlun dang te aiin leiṭha an mamawhna a sang zual bik êm êm a. Kum 20 – 30 dang a vei leh meuh chuan Oil Palm hmuna leilung chu thlai dang chin leh nan pawh a tlak tawh mang loh khawpin a chhe dawn tihna a ni. Mizorama Oil Palm chingtu ṭhenkhatte pawhin hei hi an tawng chho ṭan mêk a ni.

Tut lui ruama Oil Palm hmun 15.12.2010

Nitrogen fertilizer hman nasat lutuk avangin pH (thur leh al zawng tehna) a tlahniam a, lei hi a thur tur aiin a thur phah ṭhin. Hei vang hian leia chaw ṭha (nutrients) kan tih te hi a tlem phah ta ṭhin a, tin, thlaiin a mamawh lemloh leh ṭhalo zawk (toxic elements) an tih te hi a san phah ṭhin bawk. Tin, Chemical fertilizer te phei hi luiah luang lut lehin, tui chhunga oxygen level a tihniam a, lui lam sa te nasa takin a nghawng a, mihringin lui lam sa kan lo ei ve leh aṭangin, kan taksaah harsatna chi hrang hrang kan lo tuar let ve leh chhawng ṭhin. Cancer tuar nasa Mizote tan phei chuan uar loh tur chi tak a ni zawk awm e.

Oil Palm leh Tui hna

Oil Palm hi leiṭha leh tui heh tak a ni tih kan sawi tawh a, an chhut danin Oil Palm kung khat hian nikhatah tui litre 300 lai a mamawha ngaih a ni. He tehkhawng anga teh chuan Oil Palm hmun hectare 2-a zauin nikhata tui a mamawh hi tun dinhmuna Mizorama cheng mipakhatin kum khat chhunga tui a mamawh aiin a tam fé zawk tihna a ni.

Oil Palm chin uarna ram, Indonesia leh Malaysia-ah te chuan Oil Palm chin an uar chinah an tui hna a kang nasa tih an sawi uar hle. Khawvel ramdangah pawh Oil Palm chin tamna hmun a tuihna kang chungchang an zirchianna chhiar tur tam tak a awm bawk. Mizoram ngeiah pawh kan tawng chho mek niin a lang. Dampa leh Mamit chhehvela Oil Palm chin uarna bula awm te chuan, Oil Palm chin nasat a nih hnuah tui hna a kang nasat thu an sawi ve mêk bawk.

Oil Palm hmunah hian ruahtui luanglut aiin a luangral a tam zawk a, lei chhunga tui hna insiam tur (groundwater recharge) nasa takin a tlakhniam phah ta ṭhin a ni. Kan luitui te a kang mêk lai leh kan tuihna kang mêk te humhalh tura ram puma hma kan lak mup mup laia thlai tui heh tak mai, tuihna ti kang thei hial tur khawp, lo chin pun chiam hi a inchawbelo takzet a ni.

Oil Palm leh nunna nei chi hrang hrangte

Khawvel ram hrang hranga Oil Palm hmun ten ramsa leh nungchate chunga harsatna a siam dan leh pawi a khawih dan chi hrang hrang, scientist-te’n an zir chhuah, hmuh tur a tam khawp mai. Ram leilung mil bik leh awmna bik nei nungcha te phei chu a suat hneh hle a, Indonesia rama nungchate te hi a tuar nasa zual an ni. An rama ramsa awm bik – zawng chi khat Orangutan te, Sakei leh Samak te hi mang mai hlauhawmah an awm phah mêk a ni.

Khawvel hmun hrang hranga Oil Palm-in nungchate a nghawng pawi  dan mithiam te zirna 9143 lai mai lak khawma en dik a ni a, heng zirna awm tawh 9143 zawng zawng te hian Oil Palm hmun hian ramsa leh nungcha hrang hrang, a te ber aṭanga a lian ber thlengin a nghawng nasain, a ti chimit nasa hle tih an tarlang a ni (Savilaakso et al. 2014).

India rama Wildlife Scientist ṭha ber pawl, Dr. T.R. Shankar Raman chuan Mizoramah ngei, Oil Palm hmunin nungchate chunga nghawng a neih dan hi a lo zirchiang tawh a. He a zirchiannaah hian Dampa ngawpui, Oil Palm leh Teak hmun, Lo (ringthar) leh Chul ram (kum 0 – 8 léng) te a khaikhin a. Heng hmun hrang hrang chhunga thingkung awm te, sava chi hrang hrang awm te, an bit dan leh an tam dan te uluk taka a zir chian hnuah, “Oil Palm hmunah thingkung a tlem ber a, teak hmunin a dawt a, lo leh ngawah te a tam ber thung. Loa thingkung bit zawng hi Oil Palm hmun aiin a sang a, ngawchhung a sang fal hle. Oil Palm hmunah mau a awm lo a, chulah erawh mau a tam thung. Sava chi hrang 107 (ramhnuai-sava 94, dai-sava 13) chhinchiahah Oil Palm hmunah an tlem ber a (10), teak hmunin a dawt (38); Ngaw hmawr (58) leh ngaw chhungrilah (70) te chuan ringthar (50) aiin a sava chi hrang awm zat a tam zawk thung. Loah leh ngawa ramhnuai sava tam dan a thuhmun a, Oil Palm hmun aiin 304%-in a sang a, Teak hmun aiin 87%-in a sang bawk. Thlai mal chin-bingna aiin Loah leh ngawah sava chi thuhmun a tam zawk a ni” tih an hmuchhuak a, kum 2016 khan khawvela Sava lam chanchin zirbingna chanchinbu ngaihhlut ber “Ornithological Applications-ah” tihchhuah a ni nghe nghe (Mandal & Shankar Raman, 2016).

Chul ramah thing leh mau a ṭhan chak avang te, mau hmunin ngai a awh leh hma avangtein lo neih hi Monocrop plantation (thlai kumhlun mal-chin) aiin sava humhalh nan a ṭha zawk a, nungcha dangte chungchangah pawh a nih dan tho a ni tih chiang takin a hriat theih bawk. Oil Palm hmunah hian Sanghal, Thehlei, Sakuh leh Sazaw te ramvak miten an chang ṭhin nia sawi a ni a. Heng ramsa chi li te hi an damkhawchhuahna tura engpawh ei thei a, khawikipa khawsa thei ‘Generalist species’ an tih te an ni tih erawh kan hriatchian a pawimawh.

Oil Palm hmun atana thehchhuah tur ramngaw kan ngah tawk em?

Forest Survey of India (FSI) report hnuhnung berin (2019) a tarlan danin Mizoram zau zawng aṭanga teha zaa 85.41 hi ramngaw a ni. Report hmasa zawk (2017) nen tehkhin chuan ramngaw 180.49 sq km lai kan hloh tihna a ni. Ramngawin a tuam chin (85.41%) hi tam hle angin a lang nain, kan hriat atana pawimawh chu ‘Satellite hmanga en’ a ni tih hi a ni. Satellite thlalak hian plantation hrang hrang leh ramngaw tak tak a thliar hrang lem lo a, Satellite aṭanga ramngaw tuamchin anga lang kha a hmunah chuan ngaw chhah a awm vek kherlo tihna a ni. Tin, kan ramngaw neih dan hi a fahrah puan hlai a; ngawdur hi ar hmai tiat lek a ni.

Oil Palm demonstration plot, Serchhip 03.03.2011

Mizoramah hian humhalh bik ram (Protected Area) 1,728.75 sq km a zau kan nei a. Hei hi kan ram zau zawng aṭanga tehin zaa 8.20 chauh a ni a. FSI report-a ngaw tuam chin anga a tarlan 77.21% zet chu humhalh bik hmunin a huamlo tihna a ni. A kum telin heng kan ngaw te hi an heu duai duai reng bawk a ni.

Thingphun runpui te neiin, khawii emaw lai laia thingphun te hi a ṭangkai khawp mai, mahse ramngaw puitling tawh te’n khuarel kalphunga an thawh tur ang tak (ecological role) kha a hen zo tak tak chuang lo. A awmsa humhalh hi a pawimawh ber mai, ram ruak leh rambuaah te, a remchan dan ang phunbelh zel pawh a uar zel bawk ila.

Lo neih/ Mizo lo neih nge ṭha thlai/thing mal chin bingna kalpui?

Mizoram sorkar chuan kan lo neih danin kan ram leilung, ramngaw leh nungchate a tih chhiat nasat êm avang leh chu chuan khuarel chhiatna leh harsatna hrang hrang mihringteah a thlen ṭhin hi ṭhaloa a hriat avangin a aiah thlai/thing kumhlun mal-chin-bing hi policy hrang hrang (Jhum Control, NLUP, MIP etc) hmangin a kalpuia. Amaherawhchu a hmalama kan tarlan tawh angin, heng thlai mal-chin-bingna nena buk chuan Mizo lo neih dan phung pangngai hi a thlanawm zawk daih lawi si a ni. Inkaihhruaina mumal leh leilung tana pawilo thei ang ber tur ruahman te, lo neih tihmasawn tur zawnga leilung enkawl dan duan chhuah te, vahchap sawngbawl dan ṭha zawk leh kan tualṭo thlai ngaihhluta uar te hian kan lo neihin a nghawng ṭhalo hi a ti tlem leh zual dawn a ni.

Nghalchawm rama Oil Palm hmun 07.05.2020

Oil Palm hmun atana ramngaw kan ṭhiah hian a chhehvel khawtlang ram neihna chanvo tam tak a ti danglama, he’ng miten ngaw aṭanga an eitur leh ṭuldang, danin a phal china an hman ṭangkai ṭhin kha an chan nghal vek bawk a ni. Lo neih hi kan pi leh puten an lo tih ṭhin dan, kan hnam nun zia nena inzawm tlat a ni a. Kan hun pawimawh neih te, kan thla bi thliah hming te, kan kut te leh khawtlang nun hi kan lo neih dan nen a inzawm tlat a ni, Zopa pumchuak thiamna (traditional knowledge) hlu êm êm ṭhahnemtak a ken tel bawk avangin um bo ai chuan tun aia ṭha lehzual leh hlawk lehzuala lo kan neih theih dan ngaihtuah te, kan tualṭo thlaite hlawk lehzuala thar dan tur zir chian te, leilung hausaknain rei tak, kan tu chhuan leh chhuan leh chhawng te thlenga, a daih theih nana hma lak a ṭul tawh hle a ni.

Khaikhawmna

Oil Palm chingtute hian hlawkna an chhar tak tak em? tih hi ngaihtuah tham tak a ni a. Oil Palm hmun din tirh leh a ṭiak enkawlna tur an dawn piah lam kha an tharchhuah hralhna aṭangin hlawkna an chang tak tak em? tih hi chhut fe tham a ni. Sum leh pai tam tak leichhuak anga tarlan a ni fo a, Oil Palm hmun neitu chhungkaw zat nena chawhrual chuan hlawkna tak tak an char chuang lo niin a lang. Tin, Oil Palm chingtu mi tam takin an Oil Palm hmun an suat leh tak duak avang hian hlawkna a tira sawihmuh an nih ang kha an chang lo a, an bei a dawng a ni tih a hriat theih bawk. Chutih rual chuan Oil Palm hralhna aṭanga sum la lut an awm tih erawh phat rual a ni lo; a chingtu an tam ang aiin a hlawkna teltu an tlem riau si hi rilru kaptu chu a ni.

Oil Palm rah leh a thartu. Image Courtesy – Bika Renthlei

Oil Palm hmun atan kan ram rohlu – kan ramngaw leh nungcha te hi kan ser ral mai ang tih a hlauhawm takzet a ni.  Mizoram hi sik leh sa inthlak chak lutuk (Climate Change) tuar nasa ber tur zinga an sawi kan nih mêk laia kan ram sik leh sa min vawn saktu – kan ramngaw leh nungchate dinhmun tiderthawng thei zawnga hmathar lak chiam mai hi mahni lulakna a nih loh pawhin a teuh viauin a rinawm! Intodelhna tura kan hmathlir hian sum leh pai hlawkna chauh nilvoin hlawkna tluantling zawk, khuarel chhiatna nasa tak thleng thei laka kan himna tur te, dinhmun hniam ber aṭanga sang ber thlenga kan inṭawm – kan sik leh sa, kan tui tlan leh kan boruak hip te tibawrhbang lo zawnga hmalakna te hi huam tel sela a duhawm takzet a ni.

Oil Palm-in ram leilung bakah nungcha chi hrang hrangte tana harsatna a thlen nasat zia leh, a chhehvela cheng mihringte tan pawh kawng hrang hranga harsatna a thlen dan hrechiang êm êm chunga sum leh pai tawktarha hetianga barhluih kan ni chho leh ta hian ngaihtuahna a ti thui a, kan ram min tihchhiat sak veka, kan hnam leh sakhua min chimih ṭhak mai hi pawi an ti lo em ni le? tia ngaihtuah theih tak a ni.

[Vanglaini (Mizo Daily) September 13, 2021-ah tihchhuah a ni]

Ziaktute:
Dr. David C. Vanlalfakawma, Asst. Professor, Dept. of Forestry, MZU
C. Zohmingsangi, Research Scholar, Dept. of Environmental Sciences, MZU
Dr. Lallianpuii, Scientist C, Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun
Dr. Saipari Sailo, Scientist C, Zoological Survey of India, Jabalpur

2 thoughts on “Oil Palm chin leh a nghawng”

  1. Mithiam ziak nge nge, chhiar a nuam in kan fin phah sawt mai. Kan ram hruaitu te hian an chhiar ve ngei beisei ila. He Article hian kawngro thui tak a sut ngei ka beisei.

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