Hripui – Mihringte cho chhuah…?

Khawiah emaw hri a leng fo thin. Hri a len hian han chhui han chhui ila mihringte vang a ni tlangpui thin. Heng hrileng te hi thilsiam tinreng te a lo inbuk tawk leh theihna tura Khuanu remruat a ni…

Khawvelah hian hri a leng fo a, a ṭhen chu hmun zimteah a leng a (endemic), a ṭhen chu hmun zau zawkah (epidemic), a ṭhen erawhin khawvel pum a huap thung (pandemic). Mizoramah pawh hrileng kan tuar ve fo a, 1918 bawr vela “influenza” kha kan tawrh nat ber a ni mai awm e. Khaw ṭhenkhata Zawnghri leng kha an tuar viau bawk. Hri hi engvanga leng ṭhin nge ni ang tih hi zawhna lian tak a ni ang. Chhan hrang hrang a awmin a rinawm. Mi ṭhenkhat chuan ram engemawin ralthuam (Bio-weapon) atana an siam a nih an ring a, ramsa aṭanga kan kai chhawn ni a ngai an awm bawk. Tun ṭumah hian Ecology tarmitin kan thlir dawn a ni.

Khuarel thilthleng – Mihring vang

Khawvela thil thleng tam tak, “khuarel thilthleng” kan tih te hi khawvela chengten kan chenna kan enkawl danin a nghawngchhuah tam tak a awm a, mawhphurtu lianber te chu mihringte kan ni. Chu’ng khuarel chhiatna zingah chuan tuilian te, leimin te, thlipui te pawh a tel thei ang – In kan sak dan phung te, kawlphetha siamchhuahna tura tuikhuah avang te, boruak chhia kan tihchhuah nasat avang tea lo hluar ta an ni. Chutiang zelin khawvel sik leh sa danglam chak lutuk dan te, awmna hri te, dengue te leh khawṭhalo hri leng fote pawh hi mihringte khawsak dan phungin a tih hluar chhoh an ni ber mai.

Pathianin khawvel a duan danah hian thil engkim mai hi inbuk tawk leh inkamki tawkin, inmamawh tawnin a siam a, chu inbuktawn chu a lo danglam hlek hian harsatna eng eng emaw a lo piang ṭhin. Chung zinga pakhat chu hrileng hi ni ngeiin a lang. Hri hi mihring te chungah lo pawh a leng fo a, tun hnaiah pawh vawk pul hri te, arpul hri te, Saza hri te a leng a. Mihringte zingah pawh Ebola te, SARS te, Swine flu te, Avian flu te bakah nantna hri chi hrang hrang a leng ṭhin a, Covid 19 (SARS CoV-2) a leng leh mêk bawk. Heng zawng zawng hi a chhan dik tak hrelo mah ila, Ecological imbalance vang a ni thui hle tih a hriat theih.

Hripui léng tawh ṭhenkhat – Ecology tarmit aṭangin

  1. 1918-a Spanish flu, mi maktaduai 10 chuangin an thihpui, Mizote pawhin Influenza tia kan lo hriat leh kan lo tawrh ve pawh kha tui-sava aṭanga kaichhawna ngaih a ni a, kha hripui kha “Mother of all pandemics” (Morens and Taubenberger, 2018) an ti hial a. Khami a chinah khan a khat tawkin awmna hri (infuenza) hi khawvelah a leng renga ngaih a ni. Kha hripui kha Spain aṭanga darh nia ngaih a nih avanga Spanish flu tih a ni nain khatiang taka a darh a, hriatchhuah a nih hma khan vei engemaw zat an awm tawhin an ring a, kum 1917 khan a darh tawhah an ngai hial. A lo chhuahna bul tak pawh hi rindan chi hrang hrang a awm a, France a nih ring te, China a nih ring te, Britain a nih ring te pawh an awm bawk. Indopui pakhatna hunlai a ni a, Ecological crisis nasat vanglai tak a ni bawk. Indopui lai a nih avangin sipai raldote chu hmun chep tak takah an inêkbeng a, an eitur vawk leh sava lam chi – ar, vatawk adt. an vulh bawk. Tui-sava aṭangin vawkin a kaichhawng a, chu chu mihringin an lo kai chhawng ve leh ta ni a ngaih a ni a (Parrish et. al. 2015; Dunham et. al. 2016). Indopui laia sipai veivakten he natna hrik hi an pu darh nasa ni a ngaih a ni bawk.
  2. Ebola Virus kha bâk chikhat (fruit bat) aṭanga kai nia ngaih a ni a. Kum 2013-a a lo darh ṭanna hmun nia ngaih Africa khawmualpuia Guinea ram chhimlama Méliandou khua hi ramngawin a hual vel ṭhin ram a ni a. Guinea hian kum 30 chhung emaw zet chu kumtin ramngaw 1% vel zel an hloh a, Méliandou khua phei hi chuan theihmun atan leh oil palm hmun atan an ramngaw za a 80 zet chu an ṭhiat a ramsa leh mihring daidangtu a lo chhiat zel avangin ramsain natna hrik an lo mikhual kha mihringin an lo kai ta a, ramsa tana engmah nilo kha a insiam danglam (mutate) zel a, thihna rapthlak thlentu Ebola hripui a lo ni ta a ni (Dorit, 2015).
  3. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) hi kum 2012 khan Saudi Arabia rama damlo pakhat aṭanga hriatchhuah chauh a ni a, Sanghawngsei aṭanga kai nia hriat a ni (Rasmussen et al. 2015). Sanghawngsei hian mihrhing a kaichhawn hma hian a reilo berah kum 20 emaw chhung tal chu an lo pai reng tawh a ngaih a ni a (Azhar et al. 2014; Meyer et al. 2014), eng aṭangin nge Sanghawngsei hian a kaichhawn a, mihringte tana hlauhawm a lo nih tak tih hi tun thlenga an la chhuichhuah theiloh a ni thung (Salkeld et. al., 2016). Kum 2012 aṭang khan MERS-CoV avang hian mi 858 vel tal an thi tawh a ngaih a ni (WHO).

Ramngaw chereu …Ramsa man/ei … Hripui leng

Heng natna hrik te hi ramhnuaiah, an mikhualna, ramsa taksa chhunga an awm mai mai hian mihringte tan a hlauhawm lem loh. Mahse ramsa te leh mihring te kardangtu ramngaw kan tichereu a, ramsa te nen kan inhnaih tur aiin kan inhnaih ta a; mi ṭhenkhatin ramsa an man a, an khawi a, an ei bawk a, chuvang chuan ramsa aṭanga natna kaichhawn theih (Zoonotics) avangin kan buai kan buai ta a ni ber mai. Heng natna hrik te hi an mikhualna – ramsate tana hlauhawm an ni lem lo, mahse mihringa a luh erawh chuan natna ṭihbaiawm tak a ni thei a, tin, ramsa aṭanga mihring ten direct-a kan kai kher loh pawhin ramsain ranvulhah kaichhawngin chu hrik chu a lo insiam danglam (mutate) a, tichuan mihring ten kan lo tawrh theih phah ta ṭhin a ni.

Covid 19 hi China rama Wuhan-a sa (nung leh nunglo) zawrhna aṭanga darh ṭan nia sawi a ni a, helai dawr hmun hi ramsa nung lai chi hrang hrang an zawrhna hmun nia sawi a ni bawk. Heng ramsate aṭanga kaichhawn hi ni ta bera ngaih theih a ni a, he hri a lo darh tak hnu lawka China sawrkarin ramsa zawrh leh ei a khap tak aṭang hian he thu hi an pawm tih a chiang viau awm e.

Pathianin a thilsiam chitin reng te tan ramri fel takin a duang a, mihringte hian kan ramri kan kân nasa ber a, min hungtu (envelope) pelin ke kan pen (de-envelope) fo ṭhin. Hei hi development (de-envelope/desveloper) ṭawngkam lo chhuahna bul nia ngaih a ni bawk. Hmanlai piputen an buh leh bal vennan vauah thang an kam ṭhin. An ramri pela mihringte thlawhhmaa luh tum ramsa chu an lo awk mai ṭhin. Pasalṭha Neuva pawhin a ramri a pel a, Val-upaten thiangloa an ngaih thlengin a tawnluia, a nunna a chan phah hial. Khuarel ramri (Khuavang ri khamsa nilo!) hi kan kân tikah harsatna leh buaina kan tawng fo ṭhin tih a lang reng mai.

Hriléng pumpelh

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Maryland, USA-a zirmite chuan heng ramsa aṭanga natna kan kaichhawn hi a zual telh telh an rin thu kum 2018 khan American Journal of Public Health-ah an lo puang tawh a (Morens and Taubenberger, 2018), David Quammen-a chuan “Ecosystem kan tihhchiat zel avangin a chhunga virus chi hrang hrang awm te kan ching chhuak mêk a, an chenna hmun kan tihchhiat miau avangin chenna thar, mihringah a rawn zawng ta zel a ni” a ti bawk. Mizo upa te pawhin “kan zun ekthli kan tuar ta love” tiin an chenna khaw hrisello chho zel chu pemsanin khawthar an kaiphah ṭhin bawk.

Tunlai khawvela hriléng te hi a bul ṭanna mai niin zirmite chuan an ngai a, hetiang zela kan chenna khawvel kan enkawl chuan a la hluar chho deuh deuh dawn niin an ngai. Tunlai khawvelah hriléng laka invennana khawthar kai maina tur a awm tawh lova, pemsan ngawt theih a ni lo. Zun, êk thli leh bawlhhlawh enkawl kawnga chet fai piahlam a ngaih zia a lang cho mêk. Natna hrik chi hrang hrangte ramhnuaia an awmna aṭangin va chingchhuak kher lo ila, kan himna kulhpui kan ramri hi kan lo ila, mihring zinga an lo luh ve theihlohna turin an chenna ramngaw humhalh zel ila, natna hrik pu darh theitu ramsa leh sava te man, khawi leh an sa ei sim bawk ila, tichuan hri hlauhawm lakah kan him zawk ang a, hrileng pawh kan pumpelh thei zawk ngei ang.

Thu laknate:

  • Azhar EI, El-Kafrawy SA, Farraj SA, Hassan AM, Al-Saeed MS, Hashem AM, Madani TA. (2014). Evidence for camel-to-human transmission of MERS coronavirus. New England Journal of Medicine 370: 2499–2505.
  • Dorit, R (2015). Breached Ecological Barriers and the Ebola Outbreak. American Scientist. 103(4):256.
  • Dunham, E.J., Dugan, V.G., Kaser, E.K., et al. (2009). Different evolutionary trajectories of European avian-like and classical swine H1N1 influenza A viruses. J Virol. 83(11):5485 – 5494.
  • Meyer B, et al. (2014). Antibodies against MERS coronavirus in dromedaries, United Arab Emirates, 2003 and 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases 20: 552–559.
  • Morens, D.M. and Taubenberger, J.K. (2018). The Mother of All Pandemics Is 100 Years Old (and Going Strong)! American Journal of Public Health. 108(11): 1449 – 1454.
  • Parrish, C.R., Murcia, P.R. and Holmes, E.C. (2015). Influenza virus reservoirs and intermediate hosts: dogs, horses, and new possibilities for influenza virus exposure of humans. J Virol. 89(6):2990 – 2994.
  • Salkeld, D.J., Stapp, P., Tripp, D.W., Gage, K.L., Lowell, J., Webb, C.T., Brinkerhoff, R.J. and Antolin, M.F. (2016). Outbreaks and Emergence of Zoonotic Pathogens. BioScience 66: 118–129.

Phuarbeh Art … ât?

Artist-te an awhawm êm êmna leh an ngaihsanawmna nia ka lo hriat ve ṭhin chu zalên taka an ngaihtuahna leh a mitthla, an suangtuahnate a taka hmuh theih tura an duang chhuak ṭhin hi a ni. Mahse hei hi a lo ni chiahlo emaw ni dawn ni. Artist-te hian sum an thawhchhuah a ngaih avangin an duh ang ni lemlo, mi duh angin, mi tih tir angin hna an thawh a ngaifo mai a lo ni a. Chutianga mi tih tir anga an hnathawh chu “commisioned work” an ti a ni awm e. Chumi piahlamah chuan mipui vantlangin an lawm a, an ngaihzawn tura duhawmna leh ngaihnobeina an bilh thuah ṭun, “romanticise” an tih mai, hralh nuam riau tur chi te pawh a la awm leh zel a ni awm e. Ṭhenkhat ve thung erawh chuan ngaihnobeina leh duhawmna te chu an ngaipawimawh lem lo, mawina aiin takna an dah lian a, duhawmna aiin inpuanchhuahna an dah sang zawk ṭhin. Hnam rilru chawhthawhnan te pawh an hmang ta ve awm e!

Painting sawihlawh

Painting sawihlawh tak mai kha a tak ngeiin ka hmu a, a paint-tupa kutchhuak dang pawh ka hmu nual tawh bawk. A kutchhuak dangte nena khaikhin ralah chuan chuti taka han ṭha fal emaw a ni lem lo a, mawina leh duhawmna emaw, ngaihnobeina emaw a nei pawhin ka hre lo. Ama’rawhchu Pu Zorama hlimsang mai kha erawh “a Pu Zorama” hliah hliah a, “portrait” ṭha bik a chhiar tur zinga mi a ni ang. A hawtu ten an huatchhan ber nia lang, Portrait hnunga serthlum rawng leh a tlangkuala rawng hring inzawmna laia Lotus par anga ngaih theih, parparh silo awm kha a ni awm e. A hawtute hian a BJP niin an ngai a, Pu Zorama lem BJP chhinchhiahna hmanga han cheibawl vel kha pawm harsa an ti niin a lang. BJP nena an thawhho dan zawng zawng hre vek chunga Mizotena ro min rel tura kan thlan tlin an ni a, tun a taka an thawhpuite nena an inzawmna ti lang thei tur awm ang lemziak han huatthar leh viau hi hriatthiam har ka tih êm êm lai  chu a ni. “Kan inzawmlo” ti se dawt an sawi a ni tih hrechiangtu te chu vote hlu tak petu te tho hi kan ni. An zawmpui, an thawhpuite hi an zahpui thar leh ta thut nge, a ruk takin bansan an lo tum reng zawk!

Chapchar Kut Art exhibition 2020…art work, art work an la sawn lai…Whatsapp-a ka dawn

An haw miau si a

An haw miau si a le! An huat êm êm avanga anmahni duhthua an va chhuh ngawt mai kha a mak lehzuala chu a ni. Eng thu neihna nge an neih bik le? Mizo chanchinah hla inphuah el avanga Chhim leh Hmar indo a lo chhuah thu kan hmu a, tuna lemziak erawh intihelna lam aiin a ziaktuin a veizawng a phochhuahna a ni mai zawk si. Ruling ṭhalaite hian an thiltih hi ngaihtuahna fim hmangin an ngaihtuah lo em ni ang? Dan siamtu nih tum, ram roreltu ni tura inbuatsaih mêk tan heti taka dan leh hrai palzut leh dan hnuaia mi zalenna rahbeh hi a awm anglo takzet a ni. Hotu te laka mark ṭhat tum luata daibaw palh an nih phei chuan hotute tihmingchhetu zawk an ni ang. (Dan an bawhchhiat leh a kaihhnawih chungchang hi Vanglaini Chanchinbu Mar. 10, 2020-ah tihchhuah a ni).

Ze hrang – duh dan hrang

Mihring kan inanglo ang bawkin Artist-te tuipui zawng leh vei zawng, ngaihtuah zawng pawh a danglam a. Mizo artist tam zawk chuan hmanlai Mizo khua niawm tak  leh Mizo zia-rang pholang thei lam hawi lemziak an tuipui a. Chutiang lama kal lo tlemte an awm a, thuamhnaw leh silh leh fen hmanga Mizona phochhuah an tum lem lo; Thlana pawh hi chu’ng zinga mi chu a ni. Mizo te dinhmun leh hun tawn mêk  lama ngaihtuahna sengin, politics avanga boruak inlumlet mêk te, chi leh chi inthliarna duhlohna lam te hi India ram khawpui hrang hrang leh Sapram thlenga lemziak leh kutchhuak dang hmangin a phochhuak tawh a ni, Thlana hian.

Tihsual?

Mizote zingah hian Art tuipuia nunpui tam tak an awm a, chung miten hma an sawn theihna tura hmalatu pawl lian tak Mizoram Art Development Society (MADS) a awm a, chu pawlah chuan Thlana hi member a ni bawk. Hetianga Thlana kutchhuak avanga inhnialna nasa tak a awm mêk lai hian MADS lam chuan an tihsual a ni tih pawmin, thuphachawina an tichhuak hial a.  Ni e, MADS-in an tihsual lian tak chu Curator mumal tak emaw endiktu bik emaw awm lo a Exhibition an buatsaih kha a ni phawt mai. Kutchhuak an dawn zawng zawngte thlifim hmasa loa an pho chhuah mai zel avangin tihsual pawh an neih phah ta reng a ni.

Phuarbeh…?

Mizo te hi kan la tamloh avang te leh  Art kan thlir dan zim tak avang te hian Artist-te tan tak pawh tihngaihna a vang ṭhin a, puitu (patron) an mamawh zual bik niin a lang. Mizorama artist ten an nghenchhan lian ber chu Sorkar a ni a; MADS kaltlangin Sorkar sum an hmang ṭhin. Hei vang hian MADS tan Sorkar pawisawi a hlauhawm te pawh a tih theih ang. Thlana kutchhuak hi rorellai ṭhalai pawlten an huat tak tlatah chuan rorellai an nihna hmachhuanin MADS vilvangtu I & PR lam kaltlangin hetiang hian hma an la chhunzawm zel niin a ngaihtheih bawk. MADS chu tuboh leh dolung inkarah awmin, an artist-pui, “an member thlavang nge an hauh anga anmahni tungnungtu sorkar thlavang?” tih hi an ngaihtuah ve viauin a rinawm. An thutlukna erawh Artist dang, baihvai tak takte damkhawchhuahna tur zawk a ni ta thung.

Art Zalên

Hmanlai aṭang tawhin Artist-te hian anmahni puitu, a bikin sum leh paia puitu (patron) te hnenah an zalênna an hralh ve fo ṭhin. Tun ṭumah pawh hian artist te zalenna chu sum leh paia khaichhuaktu te lakah hralh a ni leh ta a tih loh theihloh. Artist tam tak chuan zalênna an mamawh a, zalênna an neih theihlohna hmuna awm reng ai chuan inbawlhran a, kaldan thar dinchhuah pui mai an duh zawk fo. Art movement thar lo pianchhuah ṭhin nachhan te pawh hi zalen taka mahni ngaihdan leh duhdan puanchhuah an duh vang ni pakhatin a lang. Khawvel ṭhang zelah ngaihdan leh pawm dan chi hrang a lo piang zel a, mimal zalênna a lo pung zel bawk, chu chuan artist-te thinlungah pawh zalên duhna, mahni ngaihdan puanchhuah duhna lian tak a pe ve zel bawk a ni. Tun ṭuma kan hun tawn hian Art movement thar, Art-huaisen, phuarbehna hruihrual thing thla ngam, mahnia ding ngam cho chhuak ngei se a duhawm tak zet a ni.

Zaipawlte tan

KṬP General Conference Vawi 58-na, Serchhipa Zaipawl zai turte tana thurawn

KṬP General Conference vawi 58-na chu a hun a lo hnai ta hle mai, hemi huna Sound buaipui tur, Active Sound-te pawh theihtawpin an inbuatsaih chho mêk a. Thuam ṭhat ngai thuam ṭhain, tihbelh ngai an tihbelh chho mêk. A bik takin KṬP General Conference-a chanvo pawimawh tak changtu, Zaipawlte tan nasa takin an inbuatsaih a, Palaiten Zaipawl zai fiah fel fai taka an ngaihthlak theihna turin ṭan an la mêk. Hetiang hunah hian Zaipawlte leh Sound buaipuitu te thawhho ṭhat a pawimawh hle a. Active Sound te inbuatsaihna ṭhenkhat leh kan zaina tur boruak, Zaipawl zai turten inbuatsaih dan kan thiam theihna turin hriat tur pawimawh tlêm a zawng han tarlang ila a ṭha awm e.

Active Sound-te inbuatsaihna

Tun ṭumah hian kum danga an la tih ngai loh, condenser mic quality sang tak, aw man chak chi, wireless converter device hmanga hrui nei lova siam hmang turin an inbuatsaih a, zai pawh a lak ṭhat viau beisei a ni; hetiang mic hi pali (part tin tan 1 ṭheuh) chhawp an tum nghe nghe a. Tin, Condenser FM pahnih dang, a ṭul anga hman theih turin, chhawp tel an tum bawk.

Zaina tur hmun mila inbuatsaih

Zaipawl zai tur, taksa leh thlaraua inbuatsaih mêk te tana hriattur pawimawh tak mai chu kan zaina tur hmun hi a ni. Conference neihna pandal-ah hian ri thangkhawk a awm lo tluk a ni a, Biak In emaw Hall emaw nen chuan inanglo tak a ni. Conference pandal stage leh hla kan zir ṭhinna hmun room acoustic hi a inanloh êm avangin kan zirna hmuna duhtawka sound kan in-pump tir ang ngawt khan stage-a monitor-ah aw leh music track a ring mawh viau ṭhin. Hei hi khawl lam thil mai nilovin, room acoustic an tih mai, ri khuaptu – bang, chhuat leh Ceiling mumal awm loh vang emaw, a hlat/zauh vang emaw, a sakhat tawkloh vang te emaw a ni a, ṭawngkam dangin “a dahlau” vang a ni. Tin, ri zungzam (sound wave) eiral (absorb)-tu mihring tam vang a ni thui viau bawk. He thil avang hian kan zai a lang hul a, music track ring tawklo angin a lang ṭhin.

Pandal acoustic leh Hall acoustic chu danglam tak a ni

Chuvang chuan Conference-a zaipawl zai tur te chuan hla kan zirna ṭhin pangngai, hall emawah chauh zir lovin, pawn – open air-ah te pawh, a tak ang thei ber turin han tichhin zeuh zeuh ṭhin ta ila, awmzia thui tak a neiin a rinawm. Hmun dahlau taka ri kal kual dan min hriatthiam tir ang a, a sasehah inrintawkna min pe ngei bawk ang. Inrintawkna nena kan zai chuan kan phâk ang tawka ṭhain kan zai chhuak thei ngei bawkin a rinawm. Tin, inbuatsaihna ṭha neih tluk a awm lo – music track ring pangngai taka zir ṭhin pawhin a track zawi deuh hlek zai rem te pawh zir tel ṭhin ila, tichuan Conference-ah engpawh thleng se, kan buailo zualin a rinawm.

Microphone hun dan

Microphone rem dan leh dah dan hian nasa takin zaipawl aw a lak danah kawngro a su bawk. Sound enkawltu lam ten an bungrua an hrechiang ber a, Zaipawl enkawltuin a zaipawl dinhmun a hrechiang ber thung. Hemi kawngah hian Zaipawl Conductor leh Sound enkawltute ṭanho a, thawhho ṭhat a pawimawh hle. Conductor lam ten duh dan bik emaw, zaipawl mila hun dan bik riau kan nei a nih lem loh chuan Sound buaipuitu te rem dan hi a fuh duh ber mai, an zai ngaihchan thiam a pawimawh. Duh dan leh remchan dan zawk kan nei a nih chuan Sound enkawtu te hriattir lawk a, kan duh dan hrilhhriat a pawimawh hle bawk. Conductor ṭhenkhat, hun sawn/khawih danglam tum tlat kan awm ṭhin, hun khawhralna mai a ni, pumpelh a ṭha. Tin, microphone a kal leh kalloh check kual paha kuk emaw kik kher emaw pawh hi sim a ṭha hle bawk. Hun khawhralna a nih bakah microphone-a aw mantu ber “diaphragm” in a tuar thei a, tin, inkhawm a ti chhangchhia. Microphone te a kal ṭha vek ang tih ring chunga zai mai a ṭha.

Microphone hun dan chungchangah Sound buaipuitute leh Zaipawl Conductor te thawhho that a pawimawh

Music track

Tape Cassette kan kal pel a, CD leh DVD hun pawh a liam ta. Tunlaiah chuan Music track hi phone emaw pendrive hmangin emaw kan keng tlangpui ta. Sound buaipuitu lam tan chuan phone aiin pendrive a thlanawm zawk. Android phone-a music play-na apps hrang hrangteah hian DSP settings hrang hrang a inbilh tel ve a, chu chuan a ri chhuak a khawih danglam ve thei. Hei vang hian pendrive-a ken emaw, Sound buaipuit te hnena bluetooth hmang emawa pek mai hi a fuh duh chawk. Phone-a kan keng a nih pawhin flight mode-a dah te, pattern/password hman lohte hi kan tih ṭhin dan a nih kha maw.

Tlipna

Inrintawkna nena a theihpatawpa zai hi chu mipui lam tan pawh ngaihthlak a nuam bik; Sound enkawltute tan pawh buaipui a nuam zual bik a, a ṭha thei ang bera lo mix pawh a awlsam bîk hle bawk. Chutiang taka kan inbuatsaih theih chuan Zaipawl ngaihthlak nuam tak a ni mai dawn a ni. A pawimawh ber erawh thinlung taka zai a ni. Eng dinhmunah pawh, eng ang sound pawh ni se “thinlung taka Pathian fak thei turin tisa leh thlarau inbuatsaihna” ngawrh takin i bei zel ang u.

Ruaichaw thleng sil

Mizote hi ruai ṭheha inpawlkhawm uar tak mai kan ni a. Ruai nena thil lawm ṭhin hnam kan ni a, buh leh sa nen kan theihtawpin kan lawm ṭhin. A bikin ṭhatni lamah ruai ṭheh hi kan uar zual a; Krismas leh Kumthar phei chu ruai tello chuan a dik tak tak thei ṭhin lo. Tunhma chuan changel hnah phahin mautheiin sa tui an chhawp ṭhin a, hlui khatah mi pali emaw paruk emawin an ṭheh mai ṭhin. Hun a lo kal deuh a, hmunhma ten a zir tawkloh avang leh hrisel zawka ngaihna avangin hlobel-thleng, aluminium leh steel thleng bial hmangtein ruai kan buffet leh a, a chang leh Krismas – Kumthar lawmnaah chuan mahnia thleng inken te pawhin kan ṭheh bawk ṭhin. Hun a lo kal leh deuha Styrofoam disposable plate a lo chhuaka, chu chuan awlsamna nasa tak min siam a, sil ngailova paih mai theih a nih avangin khawtin hmuntinah kan hmang lar ta a ni. Kum 10 emaw liamta aṭang khan a hluar zual nghe nghe.

A man a tlawmin a awlsam êm mai a, thleng sil buangbar ai chuan tute mai pawhin kan lawm ta êm êm mai a, eng ang harsatna nge a thlen theih tih reng reng ngaihtuah lovin a awlsam êm avangin kan hmang ta sup sup mai a ni. Amaherawhchu Styrofoam (Thermocole) hi sarang ang bawka ṭawihral theilo, hala boruak chhia tam tak pe chhuak thei si a nih avangin hman tam loh duhtu an lo pung chhova, chung zingah chuan BIOCONE hi hma la nasa ber an tih theih awm e. BIOCONE hi tlawmngai pawl, nungcha leh ramngaw, environment humhalh a vawnhim hna thawktu pawl an ni a, kan ram tana a pawi theih dante, kan khawvelin a chhiat phah theih dante uluk taka inzirtirna nen Kohhran leh pawl hrang hrangah ngenna an siam a, sorkar leh thuneitu lamah pawh nasa takin an bei bawk a, tichuan Sorkar thuneitute pawhin Disposable item ho hman tlem theih dan tur ruahmanna an siam chho ta a ni. Aizawl Municipal Corporation chuan Styrofoam plate hman khapna te pawh a tichhuak hial a, sarang pawh pan uchuak hman a phal ta lo.

He hmalakna avang hian Kohhran leh pawl tam tak leh Caterer lian ṭhenkhatte pawhin thleng sil chi an hman leh phah ta hi a lawmawm tak zet a ni. Kan Kohhran pawh hian kum engemaw tilai kha chuan Styrofoam thleng hi kan hmang ve a, amaherawhchu  a thehthang a buaithlak êm avangin thleng sil lamah bawk bu kan let leh ta a. Senior Department zirtirtu leh zirlai ten ṭhahnemngai takin an sil ṭhin a, Senior Department-a ka awm ve chin kum li chhung pawhin kumtin kan sil a, a kum telin a sil tura thawkchhhuak pawh kan ṭhahnem telh telh bawk. Ruaichaw thleng sil pawimawhnate, environment humhalhna a nih zia thute, Pathian rawngbawlna a nih dante kan inhrilh a, intiphur tawn turin kan â der a, kan aurual a, eng eng emaw thufahrah tê tê kan chham rual vel bawk a. Kan phur phah ve tlat nia! Chutiang chuan ṭhahnemngai takin thleng kan sil a, tumahin phurritah an la lem lo.

Kan aurual lai video dang: https://youtu.be/3ZXXLRM4-8U

Kuminah phei chuan Times Magazine-in Person of the Year 2019-a a thlan, Swedish tleirawl, Senior Department kum 2-na zirlai rual lek, Greta Thunberg-i chanchin te sawiin thil tê tham leh ho têa kan ngaih hian hna a thawh nasat theihzia te kan inhrilh a, thleng sil hi a changkan zia chenin. Tichuan ṭumdang ang bawka phur leh tha tho takin thleng chu kan sil leh ta a ni. Chanvo hrang hrang kan insem a: Tuilum semkualtute, thlengsilsa semkualtute, thleng sil tur khawmtute leh thlengsiltu te an awm a. Thlengsiltute hian a inchhawkin an sil a, mipa pawhin ṭhahnemngai takin an sil bawk. Thleng kan sil zawhah pawnchhiaiin kan hru hul leh vek a, Biodegradable-plastic bag lian ṭha zet maiah kan khunga, kan dah ṭha ta a ni.

Kohhran Hall team 1 (Team 2 leh 3 thla kan lo la lo pek a nih hi…kan buai deuh a ni!)
YMA Hall Team 1
YMA Hall Team 2

Disposable plate hi a ṭawih ral thei chi pawh siamchhuah a ni tawh a, hmuh tur a awm nual tawh nghe nghe. Amaherawhchu rampumin kan mamawh khawp hi lei mai tur a la awm lo a ni awm e. Tin, Environment humhalhna atana pawimawh 4R an tih zinga mi Reduce (mamawh tihtlem) hi kan zir tur pawimawh tak a ni a; thleng theh thang theih hmang lova thleng kan sil hian kan mamawh kan ti tlem a, resource kan ren/kan hmang tlem tihna a ni tel bawk. “Tui leh sahbawn in hmang nasa awm sia” tih zawhna a awm maithei e, tui hi chu a luang a luang a, a inthlifim leh mai ṭhin a, thlai (resource) dang te ai chuan a intuaithar (recycle) leh chak zawk avangin a him zawk êm êm a ni.

Thleng chhiar
A hmei a pain an sil a, an hru a

Kumin aṭang chuan Senior Department ka lo chhuahsan ve leh dawn ta, he department-a ka awm chhung zawnga chiang taka ka hmuh chu Senior Department zirlaite hi lehkhathiam rual, an thil zirlai te a taka hman chak rual an ni a, mawhphurhna pêk thiama kaihhruai peih chuan ṭangkai taka hman theih an ni tih hi a ni. Thleng sil hi phurrit anga ngaitu tam zawk hi anmahni nilovin an nu leh pate leh an chhungte an ni tlangpui ṭhin a… “A hahthlak thlak nen, dispo hman ve mai awm a lawm…” ti zawnga an rilru lo tihnual ṭhintute hi tudang nilovin an laina hnaite an ni tlangpui ṭhin. Nu leh pate hian kan fate kan hmangaih dan hi a tipaukhauh zawng leh midangte ṭanpui thei tur zawnga kan lanchhuahtir a ṭul khawp mai; a ti no zawng leh a ti sawngnawi zawng nilovin.

Thlengsil pawl…thenkhat an lo awm sawn hman

Ṭhahnemngai taka BIOCONE kaltlanga environment humhalh inzirtira hmun hrang hranga lo vak kual ve ṭhin, environment chhe zelin a nghawng lian tak Climate Change tlangaupuia ramchhung leh ram pawn thlenga lo vakvai ve tawh ṭhin tan chuan Environment humhalhna kawng awlsam te mai, ruaichaw thleng sil hi sawi loh theih a ni lo!

Kumthar chibai u.

Tuibur nge Tur bur?

Rebecca Lalmuanpuii
Department of Chemistry,
Mizoram University

Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)-in National Cancer Registry Programme report (NCRP 2013)-a a tarlan danin India ramah chuan Mizoram, a bikin Aizawl district-ah, cancer vei an tam filawr hle a, mi nuai khat zelah mi 273 velin cancer vei ang an ni a, East Khasi Hills (Meghalaya)-in a dawt (216.0). NCRP-in a tarlan danin Mizorama cancer chi hluar zual chu pumpui, thin leh chuap cancer-te a ni a, tin, hmeichhe zingah chhul hmawr cancer a hluar ber bawk. Mizorama pumpui cancer hluar dan hi pumpui cancer hluarna rama an sawi – Japan, Korea, Chile leh Costa Rica ram te nena khaikhin tham zet a ni.

Heti taka Mizote cancer vei kan tam hi zirchian ngai tak a ni a. Cancer chi hrang hrang zingah zuk leh hmuam (Vaihlo leh a kaihhnawih)-in a thlen theih mai chi vei kan tam ber lehzel hian ngaihtuah a ti thui hle. Zuk leh hmuamin cancer a thlen theih dan hrang hrangte mithiam ten an sawi fo ṭhin a, Mizote nuna hmun chang thuk tak pakhat, tuibur-in Mizo te min eichhiat mêk dan hi kan hriat tam loh pawl tak a ni awm e. Tuibur hi a lo hlauhawm reng em? Engtiang chiaha hlauhawm nge? Damdawi a ni reng em? tih te hi tunlai thiamna leh khawl changkang tak hmanga kan zirchianna te lo thlirho ila.

Mizote leh Tuibur
Kan pi leh pu te hunlai kum tam tak kal ta aṭang tawhin tuibur – zuk leh hmuam hi Mizo nungphunga bet tel tlat a ni tih hi Mizo tawh phawt chuan kan hre vekin a rinawm. Mahse kan pi leh pu te khan engtik lai aṭang chiahin nge an chin ṭan tih erawh hriat a harsa deuh. Tuibur zuk leh hmuam hi khawvel hnamdang tute mahin an chin ve loh thil danglam tak mai a ni.

Hmanlai chuan kan pi leh pu te khan pemthar damdawi atan te an lo hmang tawh ṭhin a, khang hun laite kha chuan damdawi dang awm hek lo. Tunlai ṭhangthar leh zel te pawhin tuibur hmuam hi ha na damdawi ṭha tak a ni ti tlat te pawh an la awm a, hei mai bakah ṭhenkhat kum upa lam deuhte phei chuan pemthar damdawi a nih an la ring cheu a, saphihrik sehna hmuamhma a hnawih a ṭha ti te pawh an awm a, ṭhenkhat leh thung chuan chuan pumna damdawi atan a ṭhat zia thu an sawi ve leh zel bawk a, “hmuam dâk tawh hnu hian han lem ila pumnate pawh a dam vang vang zel” ti pawl an awm nawk bawk. A tam mai, kan sawi vek seng lo vang; tuibur vanga dam emaw tiin tam tak chuan an rinna an lo dampui te pawh a ni maithei bawk e.

Tuibur thlawr dan chikhat. Pic: Anon.

Tuibur hi vaihlo vap thlawr-al, tui hmanga zûk, al ṭha tak mai a ni a, chutiang taka al ṭha an zûk chuan ná kha a zuk luahlan/chhawk avangin dam angah an inngai a ni ber mai awm e, mahse tuibur alin ná a zuk chhawk rual hian taksa a thil ṭha lo a thlen theih (side effect)-te erawh kan ngaihtuah thleng meuh lo. Tuibur hmang kher lo hian vut aṭanga thlawr tho, chingal hi hmang ta se, a hlauhawmna nep zawk siin, na a chhawk dan a thuhmun reng tho mai thei; chingal hman ngawt erawh tih sa loh a ni. Chumi a nih avang chuan mi tam takin tuibur hi damdawi a kan ngai tlat hi kan paih bo a hun tawh hle a, tuibur ṭhat loh dan leh a ṭhat lohna chhan ber zawk hi kan hriat chian a ṭul tawh tak zet a ni.

A tlangpuiin Mizo te hian dawhtheihna kan tlachhamin kan ngaih a sam a, damdawi kan ei pawhin a dam nghal loh chuan kan hrethiam lo a; thil ṭha lo kan tih pawhin a ṭhat lohna a lan nghal mai loh chuan kan ngaih a ṭhat loh phah lem lo fo bawk. Chutiang chu kan mizia a nih avangin tuibur hmuam a, damdawi atana hmang ṭhin tam tak te pawhin chawp leh chilh a tuibur ṭhat lohna a lan chhuah nghal mai loh avangin a ṭhat lohna hmuh tur leh sawi tur an hre hauh lo ang. Mahse, vaihlo aṭanga siam a nih ve tho avangin, vaihlo kaihhnawih aṭanga siam, zuk leh hmuam chi dangte ang bawkin kan taksaa pawi a khawih theih dan chu a thuhmun reng si a ni.

Mihring hriselna khawih pawi thei thil, tuibur a awm (chemical/tur) hrang hrang zir chian nan hian khawl changkang leh ṭha tak tak chi hrang pali hman a ni a, tun tumah hi chuan Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) hmanga tuibur a tur hlauhawm awm kan hmuhchhuahte kan tarlang dawn a ni. Aizawl, Kolasib, Champhai, Khawzawl, Lunglei, Tawipui leh Saiha aṭangte a tuibur sample kan lakkhawmte chu ICPMS khawl, Catholic Kwandong University, South Korea-ah zirchian a ni a, chu khawl hmanga tur lam chi awm zat hmuhchhuah leh mihring tana hlauhawm thei, natna hlauhawm zawk thlen thei zat World Health Organisation (WHO) leh zirmi ten an bithliah chinte nen khaikhin leh a ni bawk.

Tuibur nge tur bur?
Sawi tawh angin he zirchiannaah hian Korea rama an khawl changkang tak (ICPMS) hman a ni a, chu khawl chuan tuibur a toxic metal awmte a thliar hrang char chara, a awm zat nen lam a tehfel nghal vek bawk. Toxic metal tehna/endikna khawl hi chi hrang hrang a awm a, khawl dang tam tak aia he khawl chungnun bikna chu khawl tam tak ten a zuk teh/hmuh (detect) phak loh pawh a teh/hmuh (detect) theih vang a ni. Chu mai bakah he hmanraw hmang hian tui lam leh thil sakhat lam a elements/metal awm hrim hrim leh a awm tam lam thlengin a hriat theih a ni.

Kan zirchianna aṭanga a lan danin tuiburah hian Toxic metals (mihring leh rannung tana tur hlauhawm) chi hrang hrang a awm ngei a, chung zinga a hlauhawm zual pangate phei chu International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)-in metal chi hrang hrang zing a mihring a cancer thlen thei a tih te a ni nghe nghe a. Chungte chu Arsenic (As), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Nickel (Ni) leh Chromium (Cr) te a ni a. Tin, heng toxic metals, tuibur a awmte hi a mal khai pawh a mihring-a cancer thlen thei ṭhiau, mihring taksaah pawi nasa taka khawih a, natna dang tam tak thlen thei ṭhiau khawp a tur hlauhawm a ni.

Engtiang chiaha tur tam nge a pai?
Tehna dang pahnih, kan ei leh in reng reng a metals hrang hrang a hlauhawm chin leh hlauhawmlo chin (permissible limits) tehkhawng fel fai tak United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) leh World Health Organisation (WHO) ten an duansa leh tuibur a toxic metals awm te kan khaikhin leh a. Tuibur a Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd) leh Lead (Pb) te hian phal chin bak (permissible limits) a pel chiang hle a, mihring taksain a do let theih aia tam fe a awm a. Nickel (Ni) leh Chromium (Cr) te erawhin phal chin (permissible limits) pel ve lo mahse, an hlauhawmna a nep phah chuang lo a, mihring taksaa a lo inkhawlkhawm khan mihring tana pawi thei chin a thleng thuai ṭhin. Heng toxic metals te hian phal chin an pel emaw pel lo emaw, kan hriat loh hlanin kan taksaah tlem tlemin a inkhawl khawm a (bio-magnification), kan hriat loh hlanin nasa fein kan taksa a lo eichhe hman ṭhin a, kan taksaah natna eng emaw a lo lan chhuah meuh chuan pawi nasa tak a lo khawih tawh tihna a ni.

Tuibur chu engvanga hlauhawm nge?
Heng thil ṭhalo, chemical hlauhawm tam tak kan sawi takte hi tuibur thlawrtute vang a lo awm emaw ni le? An tui hman pawh a thianghlim tawk loh thu an sawi fo bawk si a…engvang ngawtin nge maw heng tur hlauhawm hi tuiburah a lo awm le? Tih hi zawhna awm thei tak a ni. Chung zawhna chhang tur chuan tuibur mai bakah, tuibur thlawrna atana vaihlo leh tui an hman te a hranpain kan zirchiang leh bawk.

Tuibur thlawrna atana hmun hrang hranga tuibur thlawrtu ten tui an hmanah hian khing a chung a kan sawi tak toxic metals ho hi hmuh a ni ve lo a, vaihloah erawh chuan tuibur a kan hmuh lêt deuh thaw zel hmuh a ni thung. Kan sawi tak ang khan tuibur pawh vaihlo atanga siam a nih ve tho avangin tuibur thlawrna atana an hman vaihloah khan heng thil ṭha lo tam tak hi a awm sa reng vang zawk a ni. Ṭawngkam dangin, tuibur a kan hmuh toxic metals ho hi an thlawrna vaihlo aṭang vêk a lo chhuak tihna a ni.

Tlangkawmna
He zirchiannain a tum ber chu “Mizo mipui ten tuibur a ngaihdan atthlak tak kan neih ṭhinte paih bo a, tuibur hi vaihlo aṭanga siam a nih ang bawkin mihring taksa khawih chhe thei, tur tam tak (toxic metals), a awm a, natna chi hrang hrang a thlen theih mai piah lamah cancer hial pawh thlen thei thil ṭhalo tam tak a keng tel a ni tih inhriattir” hi a ni. Chuvangin tuibur hi damdawi ni loin, mihringte tana tur hlauhawm tak a ni tih hi i hre tlang ang u. Tuibur avanga natna hlauhawm tak tak kan kai theihte pumpelhna awlsam ber chu tuibur hman loh/tih loh hi a ni.

[Vanglaini Vol. – XXXI No. 84, April 8, 2016-ah tihchhuah a ni]

Think.Eat.Save

Environment chungchang te, a chhiat tawh dan leh a humhalh dan kawng hrang hrang te kan hre chamchi a, mahni phak tawk ṭheuhah, a humhalhna kawngah pawh hma kan sawn tlang viau tawh a a lawmawm tak zet a ni. Environment han tih hian Mizoṭawng chuan “Kan chhehvel thil” tiin kan sawi mai ṭhin a, a dik thawkhat viau a, amaherawhchu Environment-ah hian keimahni, mihring te leh nungcha dang te pawh hi kan tel ve a ni tih kan hriatnawn a ṭha. Zirmite chuan Environment pawh hi chi hrang hrangah an la ṭhendarh leh chhawng a, tun ṭumah erawh hi chuan Bio-Physical Environment hi kan sawi ber tur a ni ang.

UNEP chuan World Environment Day 2013 thupui atan “Think.Eat.Save.Reduce your Foodprint” tih a thlang a, hei hi buh leh bal (Food = Chaw), eiral ni silo, thildang avanga riral ṭhin venna tura hmalakna a ni. UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)-in a tarlan danin kumtinin buh leh bal 1.3 billion tonnes (ton tluklehdingawn khat leh vaibelchhetak thum) a riral ṭhin. Hei hi Africa khawmualpuia Sahara thlaler chhim lam ram, ram 27, chhunga cheng ten kumkhat chhunga buh leh bal an thar chhuah zat nen intluk tawka ngaih a ni. Hetih lai hian khawvel mihring pasarih zela pakhatin chaw ei tur an nei lo a, rilṭam/chaw ei tur neih loh avangin nitin naupang kum nga hnuailam mi 20,000 thi ziah anga chhut a ni bawk. Kum khata chhunga buh leh bal eiloha riral ṭhin hlut zawng hi US$ 1trillion (Dollar tluklehdingawn sangkhat) hu zet a ni.

Buh leh Bal, Ei tur riral

Mihring te ei tura ruahman, buh leh bal – eitur ten an chakna an hloh emaw, mihring te ei tlakloh leh ei theihloha chhan hrang hrang avanga  a lo awm hian Food loss leh Food waste an ti a, Mizoṭawng chuan buh leh bal riral tiin emaw ei tur riral tiin emaw a sawi theih mai awm e.

Buh leh bal (chaw) mihring te ei tura duan, a eitu tur, mihring te hnen a thlen hmaa bo thlau emaw riral emaw, ṭawih chhia emaw hi food loss an tih chu a ni a, buh leh bal a tharchuah/siamchhuahna hmunah te, thar sa sawngbawlna hmunah te leh phurh kual a, semdarhna lamah te food loss hi a tam ber. Food waste an tih, mihring te eitura ruahman, a eitur te hnen pawh thleng thlap si, chhan dang engemaw avanga ei loha rirala bo thlau ta ang hi a zawrhna hmunah leh a leitu te kuta a awm tawh hnuah a thleng tam ber thung. Hralh chak loh vang emaw, ei zawh sen loh leh ei har lutuk vang emaw a thleng a ni tlangpui.

Buh leh Bal Riral leh Environment inlaichinna

Environment leh buh leh bal riralin eng inzawmna nge a neih? Tih hi zawhna awm thei tak a ni. Leia thilnung tinreng te hian dam khawchhuah nan chaw kan mamawh a, mihring te phei chuan kan mamawh zual bik emaw tih tur a ni. Kan ei tur, kan chaw tur thar turin tha leh tui, sum leh pai, hun tam tak kan sen a ngai a, chumai bakah a chinna tur hmun te, a zawrhna tur hmun te a ngai bawk. Chung mi thar sa lei tur chuan sum leh pai tam tak sen a ngai a, ei theih tura sawngbawl a la ngai fé bawk. Buh leh bal te eiral ni siloa kawng dang, ei tlakloha a riral hian, kan sawi tak, sum leh pai, tha leh tui, hun leh hmun kan sen zawng zawng te kha a thlawn vek tihna a ni a, a hlutzawng chhut thiam tan chuan thil uihawm tawp a ni.

Khawvel puma buh leh bal, ei tur tharchhhuahna leh siam chhuahna hmun te hian he leia mihring te chen theihna tur ram za zela 25 a zau a awh a, tui thianghlim za zela 70 hman a ni a, Greenhouse Gas siamchhuah za zela 30-ah mawh a phur bawk a, ramngaw chereu chhan za zela 80 pawh hi ei tur siamchhuahna leh tharchhuahna kawnga hmalakna vang a ni, FAO chuan a ti. Chuti a nih chuan buh leh bal tharchhuah tawh, ei tur ei leh si loha a riral nasat chuan a hlawkna tel bawk silovin natural resources kan ti riral thlawn tihna a ni a, khawvel kan tichhiat belh zel tihna a ni bawk.

Mizo ruai chaw buatsaih lai

Khawvelah mihring kan pung zel a, chaw kan mamawh tam tial tial a, a tharchhuahna turin hmun kan mamawh zau telh telh bawk. Kan eitur tharchhuahna turin ramngaw kan ṭhiat a, luia sangha leh thilnung dangten an tuar bawk a, ran vulh te chaw tur hnim leh thlai dang tam tak lak a ngai bawk. Chung zawng zawngin a nghawng chhuah chu Environment chingpen a ni a; thingin a tuar a, mauin a tuar, luiin a tuar a, ruahtui a tla tlem a, nungcha dangin an tuar a, a nghawng nasat ber chu mihringte bawk hi kan ni. Buh leh bal riral hi leilung hausakna tih riralna chikhat a ni a, a chhe zawnga Environment nghawngtu lian tak a ni bawk.

Ei tur riral tihtlem – Environment vawnhimna

He leia mihringte kan awm chhung hi chuan buh leh bal tharchhuah hi a reh dawn lo va, ei tura ranvulh lah a bo hek lovang. Ei tura thar tawhsa te a riral mai lohnana hmalak a ngai a, chu mai bakah mamawh tawk bak dehchhuah loh a ṭul. Kan tharchhuah tawhsa te pawh a vawnṭhat kawngah hma kan lak a ngai tak zet a ni. He thupui “Think.Eat.Save” an thlanna chhan pawh hi Buh leh Bal riral nasa lutuk tih reh hi Environment vawnhimna kawng pawimawh tak a nih vang a ni.

Mongol Bort. Image Courtesy: https://khantravel.mn/air-dried-meat-borts/

Hmanlai chuan eitur vawnṭhat dan kawng tam tak an neia, a ṭhen an rep a, a ṭhen a téng khang a, a ṭhen an um a, a ṭhen an er-fu a, tunlai angin khawl leh hmanrua neiṭha lo mahse, an vela thil awm te ṭangkai takin an hmangthiam a, eitur vawn ṭhat an thiam êm êm a ni. Hnam hnufual zawka ngaih ten eitur vawn ṭhat dan kawng hrang hrang an hriat te leh an chindan te chu tunah hian UNEP hian a khawn khawm mek a, Mongol Lal ropui Genghis Khan-a leh a sipaiten Asia ram zaupui mai hneh tuma an rammut laia an chaw rinpui ber chu bort an tih mai, bawngsa – rêp dan chikhata rêp a ni a, chung Bort kuttum tia lek chuan bawng pumkhatin chakna a pai ang zat tho a pai niin an sawi. Chu’ng Mongol ho chaw vawn ṭhat dan te leh hnam hrang hrang ten ei tur vawn ṭhat dan an neih chu chawi nun leh tum mêk a ni.

Chakeshang-Naga ho vawksa sawngbawl dan

Hetih lai hian, tunlai, thiamna sang takah hian eitur vawn ṭhatna hmanrua chi hrang hrang a awm chung hian ei loha riral a nasa zual sauh emaw tih tur a ni a, a bik takin ram changkangah a hluar a, eitur vawnṭhat kawngah an inthlahdah avangin ei tur ei siloh tam tak a ri rala, ram hrang hrang te economic dinhmun a tlakhniam mek lai hian chaw/eitur man a pung zel a, kum 40 chhunga chaw/eitur man a san lai ber niin FAO chuan a tarlang. Chuti chung chuan eilohin tam tak a riral reng tho va, sum tam tak an sengthlawn reng tihna a ni.

Mizote dinhmun

Kan Pi-Pute khan buh hi nunna ber, chaw pui ber a nih avangin, paih thiangloah an ngai a, rama an chaw ei bang nawi pawh an paih mai mai ngailo. An phak tawkah eitur vawnṭhat dan kawng pawh an lo hre fu mai; thil chi hrang hrang um nachang an hria a, sa leh thlai chi hrang hrang rep ṭhat nachang an hre bawk. Tin, chaw nawi eitur vawk leh ran dang vulhna chang an lo hre leh zel te kha an ngaihsanawm ngawt mai, ṭhangtharte pawhin kan chhunzawm zel a ngai a ni.

Damparengpui khaw pain a buh thar, In lama an phurh thlen.

Mizoram ang tlangram, in kalpawh zung zung a harsatna hmunah phei hi chuan buh leh bal vawnṭhat dan kawng hi kan zawn nasat a tul takzet a. Post-Harvesting plant te hi chu Policy Matters lam a nia, Sorkar hotu te remhriatnaah dah ta ila, mipui nawlpuiin kan tih theih leh kan tih mêk tam tak a awm a, chu’ng chu midang te hnena kan hlan chhawn ve zel pawh a ṭul a ni. Ram hla taka mi chah kher emaw, ram hla taka thawn chhuah kher emaw kan tum hian, a thawn kualna velah ṭhahnem fe chu a riral ṭhin a, chu ai chuan kan bul hnaia kan lei mai emaw, kan hralha mai emaw hian riral tur a titlem a, Environment vawnhimna kawng awlsam tak a ni.

Tlangkawmna

Hausak leh changkânna umna khawvela cheng te hian kan duham luat kan tuar ṭan mêk a, buh leh bal chingtuin tam tak thar a tum a, a zuar chhawng tuin hlawk lawih tham tur hralh a duh leh a, a leitu ten lak tama lak tlawm an tum lehna khawvelah hian kan tharchhuah sa, kan hralh sen loh leh kan ei senloh ṭhahnem tak a riral mêk a, chung riral ta te leh riral lemlo te pawh tharchhuak a, siamchhuahna kawnga thawhhlawk ber chu kan chenna leilung, sik leh sa, “Environment” hi a ni a, Environment-in a zir loh chuan kan tharchhuah a tlem a, tharchhuaktu tur te kan chaklo a, tharchhuahsa leina tur thawhchhuah a harsa ṭhin bawk. Chutih rual chuan kan tharchhuah sa engmahlova a riral leh si hian keimahniin kan tuar a, Environment a nghawng pawi êm êm bawk si. Chuvang chuan tharchhuah leh eiral inbûk tawk sela, ei sen loh emaw ei mai loh tur emaw vawnṭhat dan kawng kan dap a ngai a, ningnawi ngah loh kan zir thar a ngai tak zet bawk a ni. UNEP Executive Director, Achim Steiner-a thusawi hian ti tawp teh ang “Ram economy te, Environment leh mihring nunphung te leh tunlai khawvela harsatna hrang hrang, ṭamtla te, sik-leh sa danglam zel leh ramngaw chereu zel te leh ram leilung chhe mek te hi a inkungkaih a, chung venna kawng pawimawh tak chu Ei loha riral tih tlem hi a ni.”

[June 5, 2013-a Vanglaini chanchinbu-a tihchhuah tawh, siamrem a ni]

Raw chi tha – Bihchianna

Environment & Forest Department-in an chhianchhiah danin kum 2010 thleng khan Mizoramah hian mau chi hrang 35 a awm a, chung zinga 25 chu tualṭo a ni a, a dang 10 chu lakluh (introduced) a ni (E&F, 2010); heng ramdang maute hi kum 2006 aṭanga 2009 inkara Mautam dolêtna scheme – BAFFACOS (Bamboo Flowering and Famine Combat Scheme) leh National Bamboo Mission (NBM) kaltlang te a lakluh ni berin a lang. Ramdang mau, Mizorama lakluh tam zawk hi a tira a laluttu te beisei leh ngaihtuah ang kha pha tak ang maw?

Kan Chief Minister zahawm takin chawkluh a tum raw chi 2, Mizo te dinchhuahna tur bulpui, India Hmarchhaka helna tihrehna tur a hmanraw tangkai la ni thei te hi i lo bihchiang dawn teh ang:

1. Dendrocalamus brandisii (Munro) Kurz

Raw lian tak, hung nei chi, Tropical Wet Evergreen Forest (Phai-ruahtui dawng tam ngaw)-a awm chi a ni a, India ramah chuan Manipur leh Andaman thliarkarah a tualṭo-a, Myanmar, Thailand tih velah a awm bawk. India ram hmundangah a tualṭo thu sawi a la awm lo. Manipur-ah chuan Jiribam chhehvelah a tualṭo a, Meitei ho chuan ‘Wanan’ tiin an sawi. Kum 1913 chho aṭang khan Coorg District, Karnataka-ah lakluh a ni a, ‘Burma bamboo’ tia hriat a ni, chuta ṭang chuan India ram hmundangah, a bikin Chhim lamah, thehdarh a ni ve ta zel a ni. India chhimlama an duhchhan nia an tarlan chu khung lai rama mau-raw tualṭo [Bambusa bambos (Mizo: rawhling); Dendrocalamus strictus (Mizo: Tursing)] te ang lo taka hling a neih ve loh vang te, a pum/a hung a ngil vang te leh a pum a len zawk vang te a ni ber (Viswanath et. al. 2013). Karnataka leh a chhehvela an hmanna tam ber chu deh hnang atan te, pal banah te leh leilawn siam nan te a ni a (Singh 1986; Viswanathan et al. 2013), Manipur-a a tualṭonaah chuan a tuai an ei a (Viswanathan et al 2013), Manipur khawpui Imphal leh a chhevel bazar-a mau-raw lam kaihhnawih thil chi hrang hrang zawrhnaah erawh ‘Wanan’ aṭanga siam emaw a tuai emaw a awm ve lo thung (Singh et al. 2003).

Dendrocalamus brandisii. Image courtesy: https://www.guaduabamboo.com/species/dendrocalamus-brandisii

India Chhim lam state ṭhenkhata an chin, Institute of Wood Science and Technology (IWST), Bangalore ten an zirchianna aṭanga a ṭhatna leh ṭhat tawklohna an sawi hrang hrang lo thlir ila:

1.1 A ṭhatna te:

(a) Hling a nei lo, a kung a ngil. A hung a bit lo.

(c) Hmun hnawng leh uap (humidity sang)-ah a ṭha duh a, pal-chawi atan te, kawr kam leh dil kama phunah te a ṭha.

(b) A pum a len avang leh a chang a khat avangin paih tur a tlem a, agarbatti kuang atana hman a remchang.

(d) Tuai a chhuah hnem; a tuai hi a eitlak bawk. Deh hnang atan leh hriamhrei fawng/ha atan a ṭha bawk. Maimaw pangnang khawina thlangra atan te, In chhung sekrek thil hrang hrang atan te, thing leh thlai kung do na atan te a ṭha.

(e) A tâmin chi a chhuah te hi awlsam takin a ṭiak thei; a chi a tlak hlima kui/chin vat a nih loh chuan a thi (inviable) hma hle thung; a zung kar (rhizome) pawh tihpunna remchang tak a ni.

(f) A hnah leh a ṭang tla a tam avangin leiṭha (vermicopost) siamnan a hman theih.

1.2 A ṭhat tawklohna te

(a) Uluk taka enkawl a, a zar hlawi zung zung loh chuan zar hnawksak tak a chhuah hnem a, a len tak tak hnuah phei chuan enkawl harsa tak a ni.

(b) Chinpun atana a zung kar a harsain, a hautak.

(c) A pum a len avangin sah hnuah lakchhuah a hautak.

(d) A pum a len avangin phurhkual a hautak a, a ṭiak leh a bulkar ken kual zung zung a harsa.

(e) Tui a paihnem avangin, uluk taka thah a sawngbawl loh chuan pal leh eng ilo a hmanin a tlo lo, kum a daih meuh lo.

1.3      Bawmtu leh natna

D. brandisii hi India ram hmun tam zawkah mikhual a nih miau avangin India rama mau-raw dang aiin bawmtu leh zar buaitu a ngah emawni tih tur a ni. Chung zinga langsar zualte chu Aphids, leafminer leh termites te a ni.

Aphids – Mau hnah leh a ṭanga tuihnang (sap) dawttu a ni a, a tuai chhuah hlim aṭanga zar a neih thlengin an bawm tlang pui ṭhin, hei hian a kung a ti chaklo-a, a ti hrisello a, a  tlo loh phah thei.

Leafminers – Keptuam leh ram tho lam chi ho engemaw zatin D. brandisii hnah hi tuinan an hmang ṭhin a, heng rannung tui te hian mau hnah hi chawah an ring a, an ei filh rel rul ṭhin.

Termites – A pum sah hlim, thah nghal (treatment pêk) siloh hi tlumpi (termites) in an bawm duh hle. Tlumpi hian a thahrui a chhah sak a, ruah tui leh hnawng a ngam loh phah sawt a, a tlo loh phah ṭhin. Tlumpi leh eichhetu laka venhimna kawng awlsam ber chu sah hlim a thah (treatment pêk) a ni.

Leaf blight leh Alternaria leaf spot an tih mai hi Fungi chi lam zinga mi Fusarium spp leh Alternaria spp ten an thlen a ni a. Heng natna hrang hrang te hian mau ṭhan lenna leh a tisa chhungril insiamrema, inthuamchak tur a ti ṭhuanawp a, a zik a tluak loh phah thei a, a tlo loh phah ṭhin.

Mau-raw dang ang bawkin a tam ve ṭhin a, kum 45 – 50 inkardanah, tam dan chi hnih sporadic (tahtawla tam) in emaw leh gregarious (tampui)-in emaw a tam ṭhin. Kum 1961 – 1962 khan Karnataka-ah a tam a, kum 1987 – 1988 khan Manipur-ah a tam bawk. Hemi hnu hian a tam leh thu sawi a awm tawh rih lo.

2.         Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro

Raw chi ṭha nia an sawi dang leh chu Taiwan giant bamboo an tih mai, Taiwan hoin ‘Ma’ an tih Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro hi a ni a. Myanmar leh China chhimlam leh Taiwan-ah te tualṭo a ngaih a ni a (Dransfield and Widjada, 1995), Asia chhim-chhak lam ram ṭhenkhatah chin pun a ni bawk (Rhind, 1945)

Dendrocalamus latiflorus hung. Mokokchung District, Nagaland

D. latiforus hi hung chhah tak nei chi a ni a, raw sang tak 45 ft aṭanga 82 ft thlenga sang thei a ni a, mau-raw lam chiah chuan a sang thei bera ngaih a ni. A tlang tehkualin 3 inches – 8 inches-a lian a ni tlangpui a, a chang leh chang inkar hi 8 inches – 27 inches-a sei a ni thei bawk. A tualṭona hmunah te hian phaikuam aṭanga Zongaw-ah a ṭo tlangpuia, ruahtui tamna hmunah a ṭhangduang bik bawk. Chutih rual chuan lei bán leh dûpah te, leiṭhil – al bawk si (alkaline) emaw lei thur (acidic)-ah te emaw chuan a ṭhan a ṭhalo a, tuai ei tur phei chuan chin loh a ṭha zawk.

Dendrocalamus latiflorus tuai, Mokokchung District, Nagaland a mi. D. latiflorus leh D. giganteus te hi raw chi inhnaih tak leh thliar hran har tak a ni a, a par (tam) aṭanga thliar hran a awl ber niin an sawi

He rua hi Manipur leh Nagaland-ah pawh chin a ni a, Manipur-ah chuan Kuki hoin Myanmar aṭanga an lakluh nia ngaih a ni (Naithani, 2006).  India ramah chuan Nagaland hi D. latiflorus tam berna hmun a ni (Naithani, 2006); kum 2004 – 2005 khan Nagaland hmun hrang hrangah a tam a, kum 2008 khan a tahtawlin Manipur-ah a tam ve leh bawk. Raw dang ang thoin kum 45 – 50 inkara tam chi a ni a, a tahtawlin emaw, a pumpuhlumin emaw a tam ṭhin (Naithani, 2006). Taiwan lamah chuan a tam thu hriat tur a awm meuh lo a, Phillipines, Indonesia leh China-ah te erawh a tahtawlin, a hun pangngaiah a tam ṭhin (Dransfield and Widjaja, 1995). A zung kar leh a chi kuiṭiah hmanga  chin pun a ni ber a, Taiwan-ah chuan kum 1995 khan hlawhtling takin tissue culture hmangin a chi siam chhuah a ni tawh bawk (Dransfield and Widjada, 1995).

Ao-Naga hoin Warok (D. latiflorus) pum an hmandan chi khat. Image courtesy: Dr. Wapung Walling

Ralleng (Naga) ho hi Mizo te ang bawk a mau-raw hmang nasa an ni a, In sak nan te, hriamhrei ha/fawng atan te, kawng chi hrang hrangin an hmang a. He rua, D. latiflorus hi Chakesang-Naga ho chuan ‘Kupho’ an ti a, thil kumhlun lo chi, râp In leh chhawl buk sak nan te, Inchhung sekrek thil siam nan te an hmang ber a, mau-raw dang aia a duap avangin a tlo lo a, rinrawlah an neih lo. AngamiNaga ho chuan ‘Vumi’ tiin an sawi a, In châk atan an hmang ber a, slab/beam do nan te an hmang ṭhin. Ao-Naga ho ve thung chuan ‘Warok’ tiin an sawi a, chakkhai leklamah, hmanraw chhehchhawl ber atan an hmang a, thil kumhlun tur chiah an hmang ngai meuh lo a, hun reilo te chhunga hman tur, thehthang leh mai theih atan an hmang deuh ber, thingtlang khaw ṭhenkhatah chuan tui chawi nan an la hmang bawk. Kum 2015-a Chozüba, Phek District-a ka kal ṭum pawhin he rua hi mo lawmna ruai ṭhehnaah kutsilna tur tuidawn atan an hmang.

National Bamboo Policy (Revised) leh kan beisei raw chi hnih

India ramin mau tharchhuah leh a kaihhnawih lama hma kan sawn theihna tura hmalakna lianpui mai kan neih chu National Bamboo Mission a ni a, kum 2006 – 2007 khan a thawhkhatna duan chhuah a hman nghal a ni a, he Mission kaltlang hian Mizoramah pawh Mau plantation engemawzat siam a ni nghe nghe a, a chhawr ber State te zinga mi pawh kan ni awm e. Kum 2018 khan NBM hnathawh dan leh hmasawn dan te ennawn a ni a, kalphung thar an duang a, Operational guidelines of National Bamboo Mission (Revised June, 2019) siam chhuah a ni ta a ni.

Operational guidelines of National Bamboo Mission (Revised June, 2019)

Chu guidelines-ah chuan a ram leilung leh sik leh sa a zirin mau chin pun tur thlan tur a nih thu te leh a ram mi ten an mamawh leh hman ṭangkai chi ngaihpawimawh a nih tur thu te tarlan a ni a (section 10.1); rawmngaw nilo, ram bua leh thing ṭo lohna hmunah te, luikamah te heng mau te hi chin tur a ni. India rama mau tamna hmuna mi te leh mau hman uarna hmuna mi te hman dan hrang hrang te, khawvelin mau a hman dan te bakah, sik leh sa leh ram leilung te thlir chungin he guidelines-ah hian mau chin tur bik chi kua a tarlan a ni a (section 10.2), chung zinga chi 5 – Rawṭhing (Bambusa tulda), Ankuang (B. nutans), Phulrua (Dendrocalamus hamiltonii), Phungkirua (Thyrsostachys oliverii) leh Mautak (Melocanna baccifera) te chu Mizoram kan neih sa te vek an ni a. Mizoram kan neihsa loh te hi India Hmarchhaka kan state ṭhenawm hnaia tualṭo te vek a ni a, kan ram hruaitu te duhthusam raw chi hnih – D. brandisii leh D. latiflorus te hi chu an tel ve lo!

Hung nei nge neilo?

Hman deuh khan China mau ṭha chi Moso kha lakluh tumin an beichiam tawh a, an duh chhan chu  “a pum a lian a, hung a neilo bawk a, sah a awl” tih kha a ni a. Tun ṭuma raw chi hnih te hi “a pum a len bakah hung nei chi…” a nih vanga thlan a ni leh thung lawi a. Khawvelah hian rua leh mau te hi an ṭo dan a zirin chi hnihin an ṭhen phawk a, chi khat chu hung nei chi, Science ṭawngkama ‘Sympodial’ an tih mai chi hi a ni a, ‘tufted’ tih te ‘caepitose’ tih te pawhin an sawi bawk. Chi dang leh chu hung neilo chi a ni a, ‘monopodial’ tiin Science ṭawngkam chuan an sawi a, ‘running bamboo’ tiin an sawi ṭhin bawk. Running bamboo an tih chhan chu a zungpui (rhizome) hi a ṭhan chak vang leh a insemdarh chak vang a ni; rawtuai/mautuai te hi he rhizome aṭanga lo chawrchhuak ṭhin hi a ni. Zirmite chuan a hung nei chi aiin a hung neilo chi hi inthlahpung chak zawkin an sawi a, tin, a hung nei hi chu a bawrkhawm luk ṭhin avangin a zung ṭhang zel tur leh tuaichhuah zel turin amah leh amah a indip (congest) hma bik. Tun ṭuma kan hruaitu te raw duh chi hnih te hi hung nei chi, tuai chhuah chak zawk tur a sawi a ni a; hung neilo chi, mautak ang chi ho hi inthlahpung chaklo zawk anga sawi a ni bawk. Zir mite sawi dan nen chuan a inletling hlauh thung mai.

A ṭiak

Kan ram hruaitu lam ten a chi siamchhuaktu pakhat chauh awm angin an sawi a, Assembly House-ah hial pawh a siamtupa monu damlohna avanga a chi la dawng lo anga sawi a ni. Tunge a nih ka hre hauhlo a, Growmore Biotech Ltd neitupa, Dr Barathi kha a nih ka ring thla ngawt a. Growmore Biotech hian an website (www.growmorebiotech.com)-a an tarlan danin an buaipui ber chu Beema bamboo an tih mai, Bambusa balcooa aṭanga raw chi thar deuh, tissue culture hmanga an siamchhuah chu a ni.

Tissue culture hmanga D. brandisii ṭiak an siamchhuah chu Kerala Forest Research Insitute (KFRI), Peechi-ah te, Institute of Wood Science and Technology (IWST), Bangalore-ah te leh hmun hrang hrangah lei tur an neih thu Kerala State Bamboo Mission chuan an tarlang a (http://www.keralabamboomission.org). KFRI leh IWST te hi zirlai kan nih lain a hmunah ngei kan lo zu tlawhin kan thlenchilh tawh a, an hnathawh ropui zia a takin kan hmu tawh. KFRI phei hi chuan mau leh tairaw zirchianna lam bik tihchhuahna changtlung tak, ‘Journal of bamboo and rattan’ (International peer reviewed Journal) an nei nghe nghe. Tin, kan sawi tawh angin D. latiflorus hi chu kum 1995 khan Taiwan ramah tissue culture hmangin a chi siamchhuah a ni tawh.

Eng atan ber nge kan hman dawn?

Heng raw chi hnih hi lo neiin, kan ramah hian lo ṭhangduang ta pawh ni  ta tehreng sela engtia hman nge kan tum? tih hi zawhna lian tak, kan Sorkar Flagship programme sawifiahnaa la sawi telloh a ni. Sahsa lakkhawma, phurchhuah dan tur erawh ngaihtuah tel a ni a, a hralh dan tur emaw, a sawngbawl dan tur emaw chu sawichhuah a la ni lo. A hmanna tur hriatsa thlai leh thildang tam tak kan chawk luh tawh te pawh kan hlawhtlinpui hleihtheih loh laia hmanna tur pawh kan la hriat chiah loh han bawhzui chu a huphurhawm angreng viau mai, beidawn tizualtu a ni leh ang tih a hlauhawm mang e. Zir miten ram hrang hranga an hmanna an sawiah hian heng raw chi hnih te hi “a tuai a tui thu leh a tuai ei atana an chin pun” a nih thu an tarlang tlangpui a; “a rua hi a duap avangin thah loh chuan a tlo lo a, rinrawla neih chi a nih loh thu” an sawi zel bawk a, zir ve lem lo, Zopa thil chika lo chik ve, Ralleng pa ho pawhin chutiang tho chuan an sawi bawk. A hmanna dang an sawi leh chu paper siamna a ni; Mizorama kan ngah êm êm, mautak phei hi paper ṭha chi siamnan an duh deuh bik.

Malsuri (Lui hausa)-ah Bangladesh khawpui lama hralh tur mau an tawlh. Thlalak dinglam hi Bangladesh ram chin a ni a, heng mau (Rawthla a ni ber) te hi Bangladesh ramchhunga mi an sah niin an insawi. Hetilai bawrah hian Mizoram leh Bangldesh inrina hi chilchhak phak lek a ni.

Mizoramah rua leh mau heti zat kan neih te hmusit a, ram dang mau, a ṭhat zawkna awm chuang silo ngaisang a, lakluh phet tum mai hi engngemaw a awmzia ni dawn le? Kan rama mau awmsa hmanga siamchhuah theih tur, ramdanga thawnchhuah tlak siamchhuak thei tur zawnga hmalak hi a fuh zawk dawn lo’m ni? Rua a ni emaw mau a ni emaw, eng chi pawhin kumkhat chhungin a nu a tiat tih erawh thudik a ni, kumkhat chhungin a puitlin huna a nih tur ang tiat leh chen a ni nghal ṭhin.

Mizorama Mau-raw chungchang article dang chhiar duh tan www.bambusapiens.com/mau-mawlsawmna/ Vanglaini chanchinbua tihchhuah tawh hi chhiar belh theih a ni bawk ang.

[Zirchianna hi BIOCONE bultuma neih a ni a, VANGLAINI (Mizo Daily)-a Jul. 23, 2019-a tihchhuah a ni]

Thulakna te:

Anonymous (2019). Operational guidelines of National Bamboo Mission (Revised June, 2019). Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi.

Dransfield, S. and E.A. Widjaja (1995). Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 7. Backhuys, Leiden.

Environment & Forest (2010). Bamboos of Mizoram. Environment and Forest Department. Government of Mizoram, Aizawl. Pp. 1 – 206

Naithani, H.B. (2006). Occurrence and flowering of a Bamboo Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro, in Nagaland, India. Indian Forester 132(3):358 – 364.

Rhid, D. (1945). The Grasses of Burma. Baptist Mission Press, Calcutta. pp. 1-99.

Viswanath, S., Chethan, K., Srivastava, Joshi, G., Sowmya, C. and Joshi, S.C. (2013). Dendrocalamus brandisii (Munro) Kurz. An ideal bamboo species for domestication in humid tropics. IWST Technical Bulletin No. 12. A Publication of Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore. Pp 1- 32.