Raw chi tha – Bihchianna

Environment & Forest Department-in an chhianchhiah danin kum 2010 thleng khan Mizoramah hian mau chi hrang 35 a awm a, chung zinga 25 chu tualṭo a ni a, a dang 10 chu lakluh (introduced) a ni (E&F, 2010); heng ramdang maute hi kum 2006 aṭanga 2009 inkara Mautam dolêtna scheme – BAFFACOS (Bamboo Flowering and Famine Combat Scheme) leh National Bamboo Mission (NBM) kaltlang te a lakluh ni berin a lang. Ramdang mau, Mizorama lakluh tam zawk hi a tira a laluttu te beisei leh ngaihtuah ang kha pha tak ang maw?

Kan Chief Minister zahawm takin chawkluh a tum raw chi 2, Mizo te dinchhuahna tur bulpui, India Hmarchhaka helna tihrehna tur a hmanraw tangkai la ni thei te hi i lo bihchiang dawn teh ang:

1. Dendrocalamus brandisii (Munro) Kurz

Raw lian tak, hung nei chi, Tropical Wet Evergreen Forest (Phai-ruahtui dawng tam ngaw)-a awm chi a ni a, India ramah chuan Manipur leh Andaman thliarkarah a tualṭo-a, Myanmar, Thailand tih velah a awm bawk. India ram hmundangah a tualṭo thu sawi a la awm lo. Manipur-ah chuan Jiribam chhehvelah a tualṭo a, Meitei ho chuan ‘Wanan’ tiin an sawi. Kum 1913 chho aṭang khan Coorg District, Karnataka-ah lakluh a ni a, ‘Burma bamboo’ tia hriat a ni, chuta ṭang chuan India ram hmundangah, a bikin Chhim lamah, thehdarh a ni ve ta zel a ni. India chhimlama an duhchhan nia an tarlan chu khung lai rama mau-raw tualṭo [Bambusa bambos (Mizo: rawhling); Dendrocalamus strictus (Mizo: Tursing)] te ang lo taka hling a neih ve loh vang te, a pum/a hung a ngil vang te leh a pum a len zawk vang te a ni ber (Viswanath et. al. 2013). Karnataka leh a chhehvela an hmanna tam ber chu deh hnang atan te, pal banah te leh leilawn siam nan te a ni a (Singh 1986; Viswanathan et al. 2013), Manipur-a a tualṭonaah chuan a tuai an ei a (Viswanathan et al 2013), Manipur khawpui Imphal leh a chhevel bazar-a mau-raw lam kaihhnawih thil chi hrang hrang zawrhnaah erawh ‘Wanan’ aṭanga siam emaw a tuai emaw a awm ve lo thung (Singh et al. 2003).

Dendrocalamus brandisii. Image courtesy: https://www.guaduabamboo.com/species/dendrocalamus-brandisii

India Chhim lam state ṭhenkhata an chin, Institute of Wood Science and Technology (IWST), Bangalore ten an zirchianna aṭanga a ṭhatna leh ṭhat tawklohna an sawi hrang hrang lo thlir ila:

1.1 A ṭhatna te:

(a) Hling a nei lo, a kung a ngil. A hung a bit lo.

(c) Hmun hnawng leh uap (humidity sang)-ah a ṭha duh a, pal-chawi atan te, kawr kam leh dil kama phunah te a ṭha.

(b) A pum a len avang leh a chang a khat avangin paih tur a tlem a, agarbatti kuang atana hman a remchang.

(d) Tuai a chhuah hnem; a tuai hi a eitlak bawk. Deh hnang atan leh hriamhrei fawng/ha atan a ṭha bawk. Maimaw pangnang khawina thlangra atan te, In chhung sekrek thil hrang hrang atan te, thing leh thlai kung do na atan te a ṭha.

(e) A tâmin chi a chhuah te hi awlsam takin a ṭiak thei; a chi a tlak hlima kui/chin vat a nih loh chuan a thi (inviable) hma hle thung; a zung kar (rhizome) pawh tihpunna remchang tak a ni.

(f) A hnah leh a ṭang tla a tam avangin leiṭha (vermicopost) siamnan a hman theih.

1.2 A ṭhat tawklohna te

(a) Uluk taka enkawl a, a zar hlawi zung zung loh chuan zar hnawksak tak a chhuah hnem a, a len tak tak hnuah phei chuan enkawl harsa tak a ni.

(b) Chinpun atana a zung kar a harsain, a hautak.

(c) A pum a len avangin sah hnuah lakchhuah a hautak.

(d) A pum a len avangin phurhkual a hautak a, a ṭiak leh a bulkar ken kual zung zung a harsa.

(e) Tui a paihnem avangin, uluk taka thah a sawngbawl loh chuan pal leh eng ilo a hmanin a tlo lo, kum a daih meuh lo.

1.3      Bawmtu leh natna

D. brandisii hi India ram hmun tam zawkah mikhual a nih miau avangin India rama mau-raw dang aiin bawmtu leh zar buaitu a ngah emawni tih tur a ni. Chung zinga langsar zualte chu Aphids, leafminer leh termites te a ni.

Aphids – Mau hnah leh a ṭanga tuihnang (sap) dawttu a ni a, a tuai chhuah hlim aṭanga zar a neih thlengin an bawm tlang pui ṭhin, hei hian a kung a ti chaklo-a, a ti hrisello a, a  tlo loh phah thei.

Leafminers – Keptuam leh ram tho lam chi ho engemaw zatin D. brandisii hnah hi tuinan an hmang ṭhin a, heng rannung tui te hian mau hnah hi chawah an ring a, an ei filh rel rul ṭhin.

Termites – A pum sah hlim, thah nghal (treatment pêk) siloh hi tlumpi (termites) in an bawm duh hle. Tlumpi hian a thahrui a chhah sak a, ruah tui leh hnawng a ngam loh phah sawt a, a tlo loh phah ṭhin. Tlumpi leh eichhetu laka venhimna kawng awlsam ber chu sah hlim a thah (treatment pêk) a ni.

Leaf blight leh Alternaria leaf spot an tih mai hi Fungi chi lam zinga mi Fusarium spp leh Alternaria spp ten an thlen a ni a. Heng natna hrang hrang te hian mau ṭhan lenna leh a tisa chhungril insiamrema, inthuamchak tur a ti ṭhuanawp a, a zik a tluak loh phah thei a, a tlo loh phah ṭhin.

Mau-raw dang ang bawkin a tam ve ṭhin a, kum 45 – 50 inkardanah, tam dan chi hnih sporadic (tahtawla tam) in emaw leh gregarious (tampui)-in emaw a tam ṭhin. Kum 1961 – 1962 khan Karnataka-ah a tam a, kum 1987 – 1988 khan Manipur-ah a tam bawk. Hemi hnu hian a tam leh thu sawi a awm tawh rih lo.

2.         Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro

Raw chi ṭha nia an sawi dang leh chu Taiwan giant bamboo an tih mai, Taiwan hoin ‘Ma’ an tih Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro hi a ni a. Myanmar leh China chhimlam leh Taiwan-ah te tualṭo a ngaih a ni a (Dransfield and Widjada, 1995), Asia chhim-chhak lam ram ṭhenkhatah chin pun a ni bawk (Rhind, 1945)

Dendrocalamus latiflorus hung. Mokokchung District, Nagaland

D. latiforus hi hung chhah tak nei chi a ni a, raw sang tak 45 ft aṭanga 82 ft thlenga sang thei a ni a, mau-raw lam chiah chuan a sang thei bera ngaih a ni. A tlang tehkualin 3 inches – 8 inches-a lian a ni tlangpui a, a chang leh chang inkar hi 8 inches – 27 inches-a sei a ni thei bawk. A tualṭona hmunah te hian phaikuam aṭanga Zongaw-ah a ṭo tlangpuia, ruahtui tamna hmunah a ṭhangduang bik bawk. Chutih rual chuan lei bán leh dûpah te, leiṭhil – al bawk si (alkaline) emaw lei thur (acidic)-ah te emaw chuan a ṭhan a ṭhalo a, tuai ei tur phei chuan chin loh a ṭha zawk.

Dendrocalamus latiflorus tuai, Mokokchung District, Nagaland a mi. D. latiflorus leh D. giganteus te hi raw chi inhnaih tak leh thliar hran har tak a ni a, a par (tam) aṭanga thliar hran a awl ber niin an sawi

He rua hi Manipur leh Nagaland-ah pawh chin a ni a, Manipur-ah chuan Kuki hoin Myanmar aṭanga an lakluh nia ngaih a ni (Naithani, 2006).  India ramah chuan Nagaland hi D. latiflorus tam berna hmun a ni (Naithani, 2006); kum 2004 – 2005 khan Nagaland hmun hrang hrangah a tam a, kum 2008 khan a tahtawlin Manipur-ah a tam ve leh bawk. Raw dang ang thoin kum 45 – 50 inkara tam chi a ni a, a tahtawlin emaw, a pumpuhlumin emaw a tam ṭhin (Naithani, 2006). Taiwan lamah chuan a tam thu hriat tur a awm meuh lo a, Phillipines, Indonesia leh China-ah te erawh a tahtawlin, a hun pangngaiah a tam ṭhin (Dransfield and Widjaja, 1995). A zung kar leh a chi kuiṭiah hmanga  chin pun a ni ber a, Taiwan-ah chuan kum 1995 khan hlawhtling takin tissue culture hmangin a chi siam chhuah a ni tawh bawk (Dransfield and Widjada, 1995).

Ao-Naga hoin Warok (D. latiflorus) pum an hmandan chi khat. Image courtesy: Dr. Wapung Walling

Ralleng (Naga) ho hi Mizo te ang bawk a mau-raw hmang nasa an ni a, In sak nan te, hriamhrei ha/fawng atan te, kawng chi hrang hrangin an hmang a. He rua, D. latiflorus hi Chakesang-Naga ho chuan ‘Kupho’ an ti a, thil kumhlun lo chi, râp In leh chhawl buk sak nan te, Inchhung sekrek thil siam nan te an hmang ber a, mau-raw dang aia a duap avangin a tlo lo a, rinrawlah an neih lo. AngamiNaga ho chuan ‘Vumi’ tiin an sawi a, In châk atan an hmang ber a, slab/beam do nan te an hmang ṭhin. Ao-Naga ho ve thung chuan ‘Warok’ tiin an sawi a, chakkhai leklamah, hmanraw chhehchhawl ber atan an hmang a, thil kumhlun tur chiah an hmang ngai meuh lo a, hun reilo te chhunga hman tur, thehthang leh mai theih atan an hmang deuh ber, thingtlang khaw ṭhenkhatah chuan tui chawi nan an la hmang bawk. Kum 2015-a Chozüba, Phek District-a ka kal ṭum pawhin he rua hi mo lawmna ruai ṭhehnaah kutsilna tur tuidawn atan an hmang.

National Bamboo Policy (Revised) leh kan beisei raw chi hnih

India ramin mau tharchhuah leh a kaihhnawih lama hma kan sawn theihna tura hmalakna lianpui mai kan neih chu National Bamboo Mission a ni a, kum 2006 – 2007 khan a thawhkhatna duan chhuah a hman nghal a ni a, he Mission kaltlang hian Mizoramah pawh Mau plantation engemawzat siam a ni nghe nghe a, a chhawr ber State te zinga mi pawh kan ni awm e. Kum 2018 khan NBM hnathawh dan leh hmasawn dan te ennawn a ni a, kalphung thar an duang a, Operational guidelines of National Bamboo Mission (Revised June, 2019) siam chhuah a ni ta a ni.

Operational guidelines of National Bamboo Mission (Revised June, 2019)

Chu guidelines-ah chuan a ram leilung leh sik leh sa a zirin mau chin pun tur thlan tur a nih thu te leh a ram mi ten an mamawh leh hman ṭangkai chi ngaihpawimawh a nih tur thu te tarlan a ni a (section 10.1); rawmngaw nilo, ram bua leh thing ṭo lohna hmunah te, luikamah te heng mau te hi chin tur a ni. India rama mau tamna hmuna mi te leh mau hman uarna hmuna mi te hman dan hrang hrang te, khawvelin mau a hman dan te bakah, sik leh sa leh ram leilung te thlir chungin he guidelines-ah hian mau chin tur bik chi kua a tarlan a ni a (section 10.2), chung zinga chi 5 – Rawṭhing (Bambusa tulda), Ankuang (B. nutans), Phulrua (Dendrocalamus hamiltonii), Phungkirua (Thyrsostachys oliverii) leh Mautak (Melocanna baccifera) te chu Mizoram kan neih sa te vek an ni a. Mizoram kan neihsa loh te hi India Hmarchhaka kan state ṭhenawm hnaia tualṭo te vek a ni a, kan ram hruaitu te duhthusam raw chi hnih – D. brandisii leh D. latiflorus te hi chu an tel ve lo!

Hung nei nge neilo?

Hman deuh khan China mau ṭha chi Moso kha lakluh tumin an beichiam tawh a, an duh chhan chu  “a pum a lian a, hung a neilo bawk a, sah a awl” tih kha a ni a. Tun ṭuma raw chi hnih te hi “a pum a len bakah hung nei chi…” a nih vanga thlan a ni leh thung lawi a. Khawvelah hian rua leh mau te hi an ṭo dan a zirin chi hnihin an ṭhen phawk a, chi khat chu hung nei chi, Science ṭawngkama ‘Sympodial’ an tih mai chi hi a ni a, ‘tufted’ tih te ‘caepitose’ tih te pawhin an sawi bawk. Chi dang leh chu hung neilo chi a ni a, ‘monopodial’ tiin Science ṭawngkam chuan an sawi a, ‘running bamboo’ tiin an sawi ṭhin bawk. Running bamboo an tih chhan chu a zungpui (rhizome) hi a ṭhan chak vang leh a insemdarh chak vang a ni; rawtuai/mautuai te hi he rhizome aṭanga lo chawrchhuak ṭhin hi a ni. Zirmite chuan a hung nei chi aiin a hung neilo chi hi inthlahpung chak zawkin an sawi a, tin, a hung nei hi chu a bawrkhawm luk ṭhin avangin a zung ṭhang zel tur leh tuaichhuah zel turin amah leh amah a indip (congest) hma bik. Tun ṭuma kan hruaitu te raw duh chi hnih te hi hung nei chi, tuai chhuah chak zawk tur a sawi a ni a; hung neilo chi, mautak ang chi ho hi inthlahpung chaklo zawk anga sawi a ni bawk. Zir mite sawi dan nen chuan a inletling hlauh thung mai.

A ṭiak

Kan ram hruaitu lam ten a chi siamchhuaktu pakhat chauh awm angin an sawi a, Assembly House-ah hial pawh a siamtupa monu damlohna avanga a chi la dawng lo anga sawi a ni. Tunge a nih ka hre hauhlo a, Growmore Biotech Ltd neitupa, Dr Barathi kha a nih ka ring thla ngawt a. Growmore Biotech hian an website (www.growmorebiotech.com)-a an tarlan danin an buaipui ber chu Beema bamboo an tih mai, Bambusa balcooa aṭanga raw chi thar deuh, tissue culture hmanga an siamchhuah chu a ni.

Tissue culture hmanga D. brandisii ṭiak an siamchhuah chu Kerala Forest Research Insitute (KFRI), Peechi-ah te, Institute of Wood Science and Technology (IWST), Bangalore-ah te leh hmun hrang hrangah lei tur an neih thu Kerala State Bamboo Mission chuan an tarlang a (http://www.keralabamboomission.org). KFRI leh IWST te hi zirlai kan nih lain a hmunah ngei kan lo zu tlawhin kan thlenchilh tawh a, an hnathawh ropui zia a takin kan hmu tawh. KFRI phei hi chuan mau leh tairaw zirchianna lam bik tihchhuahna changtlung tak, ‘Journal of bamboo and rattan’ (International peer reviewed Journal) an nei nghe nghe. Tin, kan sawi tawh angin D. latiflorus hi chu kum 1995 khan Taiwan ramah tissue culture hmangin a chi siamchhuah a ni tawh.

Eng atan ber nge kan hman dawn?

Heng raw chi hnih hi lo neiin, kan ramah hian lo ṭhangduang ta pawh ni  ta tehreng sela engtia hman nge kan tum? tih hi zawhna lian tak, kan Sorkar Flagship programme sawifiahnaa la sawi telloh a ni. Sahsa lakkhawma, phurchhuah dan tur erawh ngaihtuah tel a ni a, a hralh dan tur emaw, a sawngbawl dan tur emaw chu sawichhuah a la ni lo. A hmanna tur hriatsa thlai leh thildang tam tak kan chawk luh tawh te pawh kan hlawhtlinpui hleihtheih loh laia hmanna tur pawh kan la hriat chiah loh han bawhzui chu a huphurhawm angreng viau mai, beidawn tizualtu a ni leh ang tih a hlauhawm mang e. Zir miten ram hrang hranga an hmanna an sawiah hian heng raw chi hnih te hi “a tuai a tui thu leh a tuai ei atana an chin pun” a nih thu an tarlang tlangpui a; “a rua hi a duap avangin thah loh chuan a tlo lo a, rinrawla neih chi a nih loh thu” an sawi zel bawk a, zir ve lem lo, Zopa thil chika lo chik ve, Ralleng pa ho pawhin chutiang tho chuan an sawi bawk. A hmanna dang an sawi leh chu paper siamna a ni; Mizorama kan ngah êm êm, mautak phei hi paper ṭha chi siamnan an duh deuh bik.

Malsuri (Lui hausa)-ah Bangladesh khawpui lama hralh tur mau an tawlh. Thlalak dinglam hi Bangladesh ram chin a ni a, heng mau (Rawthla a ni ber) te hi Bangladesh ramchhunga mi an sah niin an insawi. Hetilai bawrah hian Mizoram leh Bangldesh inrina hi chilchhak phak lek a ni.

Mizoramah rua leh mau heti zat kan neih te hmusit a, ram dang mau, a ṭhat zawkna awm chuang silo ngaisang a, lakluh phet tum mai hi engngemaw a awmzia ni dawn le? Kan rama mau awmsa hmanga siamchhuah theih tur, ramdanga thawnchhuah tlak siamchhuak thei tur zawnga hmalak hi a fuh zawk dawn lo’m ni? Rua a ni emaw mau a ni emaw, eng chi pawhin kumkhat chhungin a nu a tiat tih erawh thudik a ni, kumkhat chhungin a puitlin huna a nih tur ang tiat leh chen a ni nghal ṭhin.

Mizorama Mau-raw chungchang article dang chhiar duh tan www.bambusapiens.com/mau-mawlsawmna/ Vanglaini chanchinbua tihchhuah tawh hi chhiar belh theih a ni bawk ang.

[Zirchianna hi BIOCONE bultuma neih a ni a, VANGLAINI (Mizo Daily)-a Jul. 23, 2019-a tihchhuah a ni]

Thulakna te:

Anonymous (2019). Operational guidelines of National Bamboo Mission (Revised June, 2019). Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi.

Dransfield, S. and E.A. Widjaja (1995). Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 7. Backhuys, Leiden.

Environment & Forest (2010). Bamboos of Mizoram. Environment and Forest Department. Government of Mizoram, Aizawl. Pp. 1 – 206

Naithani, H.B. (2006). Occurrence and flowering of a Bamboo Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro, in Nagaland, India. Indian Forester 132(3):358 – 364.

Rhid, D. (1945). The Grasses of Burma. Baptist Mission Press, Calcutta. pp. 1-99.

Viswanath, S., Chethan, K., Srivastava, Joshi, G., Sowmya, C. and Joshi, S.C. (2013). Dendrocalamus brandisii (Munro) Kurz. An ideal bamboo species for domestication in humid tropics. IWST Technical Bulletin No. 12. A Publication of Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore. Pp 1- 32.

Mau Malsawmna

Khawvela hnam chi hrang tam tak zinga mau leh rua buaipui nasa ber te zinga mi chu Mizote hi kan ni awm e. Keini ang bawkin India hmarchhaka hnam hrang hrang te leh Asia rama hnam hrang hrang, a bikin Asia chhim chhak lam hnam te pawhin an hmang ṭangkaiin an buaipui nasa hle a. Mau leh rua pawh chi hrang an ngah hle bawk. Kan hnam azirin kan hman dan a inanglo a, deh-hnanga kan  themthiam dan pawh a inthlau viau bawk.

Sihphir Puansen ram-ah hian dan lovin khua din a ni a, a vel ramngaw a chereu nasa hle. Nasa taka an beih hnuah Sihphir khawtlang chuan dan lova awm te an um chhuaka, sanctuary atan an cheibawlin an humhalh ta a, reilote chhungin ramngawah, mau hmun ṭha takah a lo chang leh ta

India ramah hian mau leh rua (tun aṭang chuan mau tiin kan sawi tawh ang) chi hrang 125 (tualṭo) leh 11 (lakluh) a awm ni a ngaih a ni a, heng mau leh rua hrang hrang te ṭona hmun belhkhawm hi 156866 sq. Km zeta zau a ni (SFR 2017). India hi khawvela mau leh rua ngah berte zinga mi niin, China dawttu ni a sawi a ni a, a ngah ber anga sawi an awm bawk. India ramah chuan India hmarchhak, leh West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh te leh Chhim thlang lam hi mau leh rua ṭona hmunpui a ni a, India Hmarchhak state hrang hrang a awmna hmun hi India rama mau hmun awm zat za a 32 zet a ni thung (SFR 2017).

Mizoram dinhmun

Mizoramah hian mau leh raw lam chi tualṭo 25 leh lakluh 10 a awm nia ngaih a ni bawk (E&F 2010). Mizorama mau zingah “Mautak” (Melocanna baccifera) a tam ber a, mau lam chi kan neih za a sawmkua zet hi mautak nia ngaih a ni. Rawṭhing, Rawnal leh Phulrua te hi Mautak tihlohah chuan a tam ber te zinga mi a ni. Kum 2009 khan Forest Research Institute (FRI) lama mithiam Dr. HB Naithani-a leh a hoten Mizoram aṭangin mau chi thar, khawvel hmundang aṭanga report a la awm lo – Talan (Bambusa mizorameana) leh Dampa mau (Bambusa dampaeana) an hmuchhuaka (Naithani et. al. 2009, 2010), ‘talan’ hi chu Mizoten kan hriatṭhan sa pangngai a ni; anmahni vêk hian Manipur ramah ‘talan’ an hmuh thu an tarlang bawk.

State of Forest Report 2017-in a tarlan danin Mizorama mau ṭona hmun zawng zawng hi belhkhawmin 3267 sq. Km a ni a, report hmasa, SFR 2011 aiin 5978 sq. Km zetin kan mau hmun a kiam thung. Hei hi a chhan chhui chian ngai tak a ni. Kum 2006 chhoa mautam aṭangin mau chi hrang hrang a tah tawlin a tam chhho zel a, mautak, phulrua leh rawthla te a tam a, kum 2012 aṭangin rawnal a tam ṭan ve leh a, tun thlengin a la tam chhunzawm a. Kum 2015 khan Zawlnuam leh a chhehvelah rawṭhing a tam tlat bawk (Vanlalfakawma et. al. 2017).

Mautam hnuhnung bera tam ho khan ngai a awh chho leh ṭan tawha ngaih a ni a, chutih rual chuan mau hmun thildang atana hman zui tak a awm nual niin a lang bawk. Tun dinhmunah hian Mizoramah hian mau pum maktaduai 706 a awm nia chhut a ni a, SFR 2011[1] aiin pum 1489 zetin a kiam bawk.

Muthi lui kama Rawnal (D. longispathus) hung

Tun dinhmunah hian Mizoramah hian mau pum maktaduai 706 a awm nia chhut a ni a, SFR 2011 aiin pum 1489 zetin a kiam bawk. Mautam nghawng ai mahin ram leilung kan enkawl dan avanga mau hmun hi lo kiam a, mau pum zat hi lo kam ta duai niin a lang.

Mizo mau nge ṭha ramdang mau?

Ramdanga an mau te lakah chuan Mizorama kan mau te hi chu a chhah zawngah chuan a chhah lem lo viaua, a pum pawh a lian lo deuh zawk. Chutih rual chuan Mizoram kan mau neihsa te hman ṭangkai dan kawng zawng silova ramdanga an hman dan anga a hman hleihtheih loh avanga Mizorama mau te hi hmantlak lo leh chhe lailet dera kan puh ṭhin hi chu kan duhthawh deuh mah mah niin a lang. DN Tewari (1992) chuan “mautak hi paper ṭha bik siam nan an hmang ṭhin” tiin ‘A Monograph on Bamboo’ tih buah a sawia, hei ringawt pawh hi bawhzui tham a ni ang.

Mizoram mau Phai lama phurh thlak tur…@Saihapui

RIPANS leh MZU lama Mizorama mau ten Cellulose an pai zat an zirchiannaah chuan mautak leh rawnal te hian khawvel ramdanga an zirchian tawh thing leh mau chi dang te aiin cellulose a pai hnem zawk a ni tih an hmuchhuaka (Pachuau et. al., 2013; 2014). Tin, MZU-a an zirchiannaah Mizoram mau chi thum – Mautak, rawṭhing leh rawnal ten khawvel tilumtu boruak thianghlim lo – Carbondioxide (CO2) a eiral hi khawvel ramdanga mau ten an eiral aiin a sang zawk a ni tih an hmuchhuak bawk (Vanlalfakawma, 2018); China mau ṭha nia an sawi ṭhin, Moso mau (Phyllostachys  edulis) ai pawhin a sang zawk nghe nghe.

Mizo Kristian te tan sakhaw dang biakna hmanrua, agarbati stick lo phurpui viau pawh hi a fuh zan em?

Mizorama bamboo vinegar siamtu langsar tak, Pu Saikhuma (SK Bamboo) chuan Mizoram tualṭo ngei a hman duh zawk thu leh vinegar a chhuah tam ber thu a sawi. Thawkkhat lai khan Agarbati stick siamna tur changchawiin mau chi thar, ram dang aţangin kan lalut chiam mai bawka. A ti nasa ṭhenkhat te kan kawm kualnaah chuan Mizoram mau hi a pan avangin a chhuak tlem deuh nain a khawng zawka, an duh zawk mah niin an sawi. Chumi piah lamah, Mizo Kristian te tan sakhaw dang biakna hmanrua, agarbati stick lo phurpui viau pawh hi a fuh zan em? Ngaihtuah tham tak a ni.

Rawtuai – mautuai leh a kaihhnawih

Rawtuai leh mautuai hi Mizo te hian kan ei nasa hle mai a, keini ang bawkin khawvela hnam hrang hrang te pawh hian an lo ei nasa ve tho mai bawk. Rawtuai khawrh hi a pawi em? Khap tur a ni em? Tih zawhna hi a ri a ring hle ṭhin, tun thleng pawha la chhan mumalloh niin a lang. Mizoram tan bika felfai taka zirbinga thultukna leh rawtna mumal tak hi a la awmlo niin a lang bawk. Rinthu leh thu puarpawlenga inhnial ai chuan a taka zirchian mai hi a fuhin a rinawm.

Rawtuai khawrh leh khawrhloh tluk zeta pawimawh chu mau pum sah leh sah loh hi a ni. Rawtuai khawrh dan chungchanga kaihhruaina kan neilo ang bawkin mau sah dan chungchangah pawh kaihhruaina mumal kan neilo niin a lang. A bik takin mau pum kan sahin a upat dan kan ngaipawimawh lemlo niin a lang. MZU-in kum 2014 leh 15-a an zirchiannaah Aizawl veng hrang hranga mau pum zuarho zawrhlai a enfiaha, heng zinga a tam zawk hi tuai tê tê, kum hmasa tuai emaw, kum 2 la tlingo emaw a ni fur tih hmuhchhuah a ni (Lalremsang et. al. 2017). Kum 3 tal a tlin hmaa sah hian mau ṭhang zel tur a ti ṭhuanawp hle a, a hung pawhin a tuar thei hle a ngaih a ni (Salam & Deka, 2007). Mau pum kan sah nasat lutuk chuan rawtuai insiam tur a tibuai pha tih hi khawvel ram danga zirmite hmuhchhuah a ni. Chutih rual chuan sah ngailoh leh a tuai khawrh ngailohnaah chuan a hung a tawta, a zungpui insiama ṭhang zel tur a ti ṭhuanawp thei thung (Salam & Deka, 2007).

Mizoram mau, Langkaih lui kaltlanga phai lama an tawlh… Pic. Courtesy: Ap-a

World Bamboo Day

Kum 2009-a Bangkok-a World Bamboo Congress vawi 8-na chuan September 18 hi World Bamboo Day (WBD) atan a puang a, hemi a chinah kumtin thupui bik neiin hman ṭhin a ni ta a ni. Kumin World Bamboo Day thupui atan World Bamboo Organization chuan “Sustainability = Environment + Society + Economy” a thlang a, mau hmanga hmasawnna ṭhang dik neih theih dan tur, environment tana pawi silo, mipui te tana hmasawnna ni si, ram economy tana ṭhanna thlen thei tur si chungchang a ni ber awm e.

Image courtesy: http://worldbamboo.net/world-bamboo-day

Khawvel ram hrang hranga zirmite chuan mau hmanga eizawng te dinhmun nasa takin an zira, mau hmanga sum leh pai dehchhuah dan ṭha zawk tur an duang chho mek zel a, a awmsa tihpun kawngah ṭan an la nasa hle. Pi-Pu hunlai aṭanga an lo hman dan hnualsuat lovin, a ti hmasawn zawng leh hralh tlak lehzual turin an cheihnum a, a tlo leh zual theih nan a vawnṭhat dan te pawh an ngaihtuah nasa hle bawk. Tin, tarlan tawh angin khawvela thlai zinga ṭhang chak ber a nih miau avangin mau hian environment siam ṭhat kawngah a thawhhlawk hle tih hi hmuhchhuah zel a ni bawk.

Mizorama Bamboo Indutry hlun ber chuan Bamboo matply leh a kaihhnawih siam nan Mautak leh Rawnal an duh ber tlat!

Mizo society leh culture-a bet nghet tak, kan rama mau te hi tun aia hman ṭangkai dan leh hlawk zawk kan ngaihtuah a ṭul a, chu chu kan bat pawh a ni. Ramdanga an tih tawh ang tih ve a, an mau ang chawk luh chiam ai chuan kan ram mau ṭhat bikna ngaihtuah chunga hlawk leh ṭangkai thei ang ber tura kan ram mau te kan hman hi kan mawhphurhna a ni. Chumi rual chiah chuan a sah hun leh khawrh dan te, enkawl dan ṭha zawk te pawh nasa leh zuala kan inzirtir a pawimawh hle bawk. Mau kaltlanga malsawmna kan dawn mêk hi kan dawn chhunzawm zel theih nana malsawmna inthup hi hailang zel turin kan puanven i sawichhing sauh sauh ang u khai.


[1]State of Forest Report (SFR) 2011 hi kum 2009 – 2010 chhunga zirchianna, kum 2011-a tichhuah a ni a, chutiang zelin SFR 2017 hi kum 2015 – 2016 chhunga zirchianna kum 2017-a tihchhuah a ni bawk.


Thulakna te:

 David C. Vanlalfakawma, F. Lalnunmawia, and S.K. Tripathi (2018). Bamboo Ecosystem: An Untapped carbon trading resources. In: Climate Change and Developing Countries (Ed. Banshaikupar Lyngdoh Mawlong). Cambridge Scholars Publishing, UK. Pp. 222 – 236. ISBN (10):1-5715-1174-X; ISBN (13): 978-1-5275-1174-3

David C. Vanlalfakawma, F. Lalnunmawia, S.K. Sen, and S.K. Tripathi, (2017). Sporadic flowering of Bambusa tulda in Mizoram: A preliminary report. Sci Vis. 17(3):160 – 162.

Environment & Forest (2010). Bamboos of Mizoram. Environment and Forest Department. Government of Mizoram, Aizawl. Pp. 1 – 206

Lalduhsanga Pachuau, C. Malsawmtluangi, Nirmal Kumar Nath, H. Ramdinsangi, David C. Vanlalfakawma, Shri Kant Tripathi (2013). Physicochemical and functional characterization of microcrystalline cellulose from bamboo (Dendrocalamus longispathus). International Journal of PharmTech Research 5 (4):1561-1571

Lalduhsanga Pachuau, David C. Vanlalfakawma, Shri Kant Tripathi, H. Lalhlenmawia (2014) Muli bamboo (Melocanna baccifera) as a new source of microcrystalline cellulose. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 4 (11):087-094

H.B. Naithani (2009). Bambusa mizorameana, a New Species of Bamboo from Mizoram, India. Indian Forester  135(9): 1291 – 1292.

H.B. Naithani, S. S. Garbyal, N. S. Bisht (2010). Bambusa dampaeana – a New Species of Bamboo from Mizoram, India. Indian Forester 136 (7): 991 – 992.

Paul Lalremsang, David C. Vanlalfakawma and S.K. Tripathi (2017). Socio-Economic Potential and marketing trend of Bamboo in Mizoram: A case study from Aizawl District. Indian Forester 143(9):737 – 744.

Salam, K. and Deka, N.K.R. (2007). In: Kalita, S.N. (ed.) Training manual on Nursery raising, commercial Plantation, preservation and primary processing of bamboo). Cane and Bamboo Technology Centre Bamboo Technical Support Group for National Bamboo Mission, Guwahati – 781 024, Assam, India

SFR (2017). India State of Forest Report 2017. Forest Survey of India, GoI, Dehradun


[Vanglaini Vol. XXXIII No. 221 September 19, 2018-ah tihchhuah a ni]

of Mud and Clay

Pedology is a part of an ecological science that deals with the study of soil. In which, determination of soil texture is an important part. Silt, Clay and loam are the three important particles of soil texture. Their concentration in the soil determines the texture and physical quality of a soil. These are some few lines that I could remember from my formal education about clay and other forms of soils.

There can be no other grand welcome for a bambusapiens than a clump of Bambusa spp. at the backyard of the studio

For me, soil is a growth medium. Soil is an anchor. But to many, soil is not just a growth medium nor just an anchor. It is a medium for their expressions.

Mr. Bhim, a traditional potter at work

Everyone knows about pottery. Normally we get our Porcelain and ceramic products from the Mandarin source. And of course, they are normally meant for domestic uses. Hence, pottery, to me, was more of a functional works, than artistry, until I met this couple in Aug. 4, 2017.

An earthen staircase

Being an art follower, my artist friends – John and Kimtea, a Kala Bhavana Alumni along with Thara, took me to Goalpara, a village next to Santiniketan. While returning, we went to the studio of this couple. Their studio and their house were a creation, skillfully crafted, and artistically conceptualized. It would be every artists dream to have such a studio!

Biagio Luca from Italy was training at the studio when we first visited in Aug. 4, 2017. (L-R: Luca, Kimtea, Thara, John and Bityut)

I have been studying, teaching and researching on ecology for quite a few years now. I campaigned for ecological conservation among the teenagers. I used to talk about living in harmony with nature. I used to enjoy camping in the wild, among the bushes and the trees. But never ever have been connected with nature as much as I wished to.

A house of mud and clay, the studio of Mr and Mrs Roy

Here at Boner Pukur Danga, Santiniketan, I met two artist, whom mother nature matched them together perfectly. They draw their inspirations from nature – the trees, the bushes, the grasses and the socio-cultural lifes of the Santhali community. Even though they could easily get their medium through online market, they prefer the materials which nature provided them. They dug the soil, and prepare their medium themselves.

A ceramic studio constructed by using ceramic and producing ceramics

For a 3dimensional art works like ceramics, shapes and forms are the two important elements, in fact the whole concept is influenced by these two elements. Being a nature lover, Bityut and Lipi’s inspirations of forms and figures which they incorporate in their art works are from nature itself.

Nature…

When asked why they live in such an isolated place, “I love the culture, traditions and the lifestyle of the Santhali community. If I lived in their village, I would distract them, so I choose a place where I could see them, where I could witnessed their simple yet riched lifestyle; a place near by them, without disturbing them” Mr. Bityut Roy replied.

Mr. Bityut Roy established the Studio in 1984.

“I am not a trained potter, but a painter. My interest and sources of inspiration is from the nature. My love for fine art and nature brought me here” said Mrs Lippi Biswas.

Mrs Lipi Biswas

Bityut and Lipi tie a knot in 1995. Since then, they have been in this field together. They enjoy what nature had provided them. For them, conservation is a lifestyle.

The entrance of the studio

As you walk into the studio, you can feel the swaying of the trees, the melody of the swirling leaves. It seems like a transect walk in a tropical forest, amidst the fog and the mist, accompanied by a drizzle to turn the mercury down.

Nature being fossilized into art work

You can hear the rippling streams. You can feel the chirping birds that are perching around, the croaking of a toad and the aroma of wild flowers blown by the cool breeze. At one corner, you can hear the rhythm of a Santhali percussion and the melodious tune of the womenfolks. It feels like we are more connected with mother nature.

Mr Jubal, a ceramic artist seriously analyzing the art works

For those of you who love nature and fine art, it is a must to visit the ‘Studio Boner Pukur Danga,’ but you have to be extremely careful not to break those fossils of nature embedded in an art work. And of course, buy from them!

The studio itself is an art work!

My second visit was on May 30, 2018. This time, I was accompanied by my lovely wife Rebecca and Mr. Jubal, a ceramic artist from Kala Bhavana. My wife was so much drawn into those art pieces that she was reluctant to leave!

Tea and snacks, in a ceramic cups and plate

You can reach them here:

Call: +919679984008 (Lipi Biswas)

via e-resources: marangburu@yahoo.com; studiobonerpukurdanga; studiobonerpukrudanga

My wife, holding the art piece that we purchased, posed with Mrs Lipi

 

The Bamboo Chronicles

Being born and raised in a family where the kitchen garden is primarily dominated by bamboo, there has always been a part of bamboo in me. Our “Chuktuah huan” (Kitchen garden or backyard) was the place where the chronicles begun. At least three species of bamboo were growing, till 2006. The gregarious flowering of the Mautak (Melocanna baccifera) since 2006 was the cause of the downfall of the bamboo dynasty at our backyard.

Bamboo forest cleared for Lo (jhum field). A view from West Phaileng to Lallen road.

Bamboo, by taxonomy, belongs to a grass family. Functionally, it is more like a wood, and is often regarded as a tree. Mizoram has at least 25 indigenous species of bamboo, belonging to 8 genera. Among them, Mautak (M. baccifera) is the dominating species, occupying ~90% of the bamboo forest of the state. Since time immemorial, bamboo has been used in varied ways. It is one of the most highly utilized natural resources among the Mizo community.

There’s a saying, once a man built a house with bamboo. He used bamboo pole, bamboo flooring, bamboo wall and bamboo thatched roof and cooked bamboo shoot in a bamboo culm, using bamboo as fuel wood. He then consumed the bamboo shoot, and said, “Bamboo, I’m in you and you’re in me.” Indeed, bamboo has a deep impact on the socio-economics and socio-culture of  the Mizo society.

A young girl sells a bamboo shoot @Vaipuanpho

The recent re-clarification of bamboo as a grass, by the president of India, however abstain the Incredible India to claim its carbon trading protocol through bamboo. If only it was acknowledged as a tree, the carbon credit owned by India would be immense, much much higher than those hardwood species. However, bamboo farmers would easily harvest their bamboo without acquiring permission from the government. In other words, bamboo being re-classified as grass makes it unnecessary to obtain permission, they can freely harvest and sell. Its a great news for the bamboo farmers. Yet, the environmental service rendered by the bamboo forests remains the same.

The Bamboo College

I did my UG studies at the Union Christian Christian College (UCC). The UCC was established in Aug. 14, 1952 at Umiam Khwan, Meghalaya by the Assam Christian Council, now known as the North East India Christian Council (NEICC). During its inception, the managing board was so poor that they could not afford any hi-fi building materials. Instead, they built classrooms and other buildings with the locally available bamboo. Since then, it was given a nick name “the Bamboo College.”

The guy who grew up among the clumps and culms of bamboo finally graduated from the bamboo college. The story continues…

The bambu sapiens

After completing PG from the Mizoram University, the guy among the bamboo choose to be with the bamboo yet again. Enrolling myself to do a research on the ecological services of bamboo in combating the climate change,  I think about bamboo, I spoke about bamboo, I dreamt about bamboo and I keep on working in the bamboo forest here and there.

Sub-samples for laboratory analysis. The RE Classic playing its role!

Bamboo leads me to 5 study sites in the five administrative districts of Mizoram. Visiting each sites bi-monthly; measuring the girth, collecting the soils, excavating the roots, collecting the litters. Two and half years passed, those data sets were transformed into some magical equations…and lo! I was permitted to submit my thesis.

Bambu sapiens at work among the Rawthing (clumps of B. tulda) @Mausen, Lunglei district

Since I worked on and with bamboo for more than two years, my friend used to call me ‘bamboo man,’ however, there are guys like Ghani Zaman who has been acknowledged as ‘Bamboo Man’ for his enormous bamboo related works. Moreover, my contribution and experience doesn’t deserve the ‘bamboo man’ title. Instead, ‘bambu-sapiens’ feels more suitable…hehe…

Field work was never a burden when you have a friend who always stood by your side be it storm or rain! Kudos to a research colleague, Dr. B. Malsawmkima

Dec. 2, 2014

Another months passed; finally Dec. 2, 2014 was the day I stood for the bamboo, defending the bamboo and proclaim that “Bamboo is the answer!” After a few sets of questions being answered, a round of applause and an acknowledgement from my Supervisor sealed the day.  Handshake and light refreshment followed.

Meanwhile at home, on the same day, there was a news of a new born baby girl; another member in the family. She is the third child and first daughter of my elder brother. How joyful it was! Its the Lord doing.

Happy birthday to Lalrinfeli (Fel-feli)

The Acknowledgment

In my thesis, I wrote the following few lines, acknowledging those that made me the bambu-sapiens:

I expressed my heartfelt gratitude to my supervisor Prof. S.K. Tripathi for his never ending encouragement, guidance and advice. Without him, this research work will never be completed. I am also thankful to my co-supervisor Dr. F Lalnunmawia, a wonderful counselor, who is always ready for me.

I thanked Prof. U.K. Sahoo, the Head of Department of Forestry and other faculty members of the department for their constant support.
Several personnel, who helped me in locating the potential study sites and arranging the necessary protocol for performing the on field experiments and collection of samples, especially Pi Chhawni of Mausen and Pu Patrick Z, the then Village Council President of Chhingchhip Mualpui, are instrumental in the completion of this work, I shall never forget them.

Their names are worth mentioning – Mr. B. Malsawm Kima, a research colleague, who always stood by my side, be it storm or rain, another research colleague – Mr. Lalriliana Fanai and Ms Jeeceelee Leishangthem for their tiredless help in the field work, data analysis as well as in the laboratory works. I am much obliged to them.

I am extremely grateful to Dr. H. Lalhlenmawia, Head, Department of Pharmacy, RIPANS, Aizawl and his staff, Dr. Aduha Pachuau, in particular, for their generousity and assistance in the laboratory works.
The staffs of the Central Instrumentation Laboratory, Mizoram University are the backbone in the chemical analyses of my samples, I am thankful to them.

My sincere gratitude goes to Dr. C. Lalrammawia for his support and advice in shaping up my thesis.

The support I received from my parents encouraged me to reach this far. Words could not express my gratitude to my loving parents!

Above all, I thanked God for His merciful blessings which He bestowed upon me. I thanked Him for giving me all of the above and lots more.

April 10, 2015: Xth Convocation of MZU – “By virtue of the power vested in me…I admit you to the degree of…I charge you that ever in your life and conversation you show yourselves worthy of the same”

To this day, I often asked myself “Am I worthy of it…?”

[slightly personal… :D]