Oil Palm chin leh a nghawng

Zirbingna hmun hrang hranga Ecosystem leh a kaihhnawih zirbing thin – Dr. David C. Vanlalfakawma, Asst. Professor, Dept. of Forestry, MZU te, C. Zohmingsangi, Research Scholar, Dept. of Environmental Sciences, MZU te, Dr. Lallianpuii, Scientist C, Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun te leh Dr. Saipari Sailo, Scientist C, Zoological Survey of India, Jabalpur ten mahni zirbing lam ṭheuh aṭanga Oil Palm chungchanga an thlirna te hlawmkhawmin an rawn chhawp chhuak e.

Oil Palm hi Mizoramah hian kum 2000 – 01 chho khan Agriculture Department lama thawktu ten, India chhim lam aṭangin, enchhin turin an la lut a, kum 2004 – 05 aṭanga hma la ṭanin, kum 2005 – 06 aṭang khan vung taka kal chhohpui a ni a, India Hmarchhak state-te zinga Oil Palm chîng hmasa ber kan ni a, “The Mizoram Oil Palm (Regulation of Production and Processing) Act, 2004” hmangin dan mumal tak hmanga buaipui a ni.

National Edible Oil Mission-Oil Palm (NMEO-OP) scheme-in India rama Palm Oil thar chhuah tih pun tumin, tun aia lêt thum a tam, metric ton nuai 11 thar chhuak thei turin hma a la mêk a, chumi hlenchhuak tur chuan Oil Palm hi ram hectare nuai 10 a zaua phun belh a ngai dawn tihna a ni. He Scheme hmang hian Mizoramah pawh hmalak tumin inbuatsaih chhoh mêk a ni a, Central sorkar-in ₹11,040 Cr zet a thehchhuah tur aṭanga cheng engemawzat dawn hi keini ang State pachhe deuh tan chuan a itawm dawn ngar ngar teh e.

Kan duh hluaia kan bawh huk, kan duh leh takloh, kan hnawl mêk tharthawh leh tumna hian ngaihdan hrang hrang a cho chhuak a, a duh pawl leh duh lo pawl, a do pawl leh a fakmawi pawl an zi nuk mai. Tun ṭumah hian zirbingna hmun hrang hranga Ecosystem leh a kaihhnawih zirbing a, thlir dan hrang hranga thlir thinten, mahni zirbing lam ṭheuh aṭanga thlirna te hlawmkhawmin kan rawn thawh ve thung dawn a ni.

Serchhip rama Oil Palm hmun a ṭhen an kar a, a ṭhen an hal a, a ṭhen a la ding! 13.01.2021

Oil Palm leh leiṭhatna

Lei a ṭhat leh ṭhat loh tehkhawng ber chu Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) an tih te leh soil nutrients (thlaite mamawh chaw ṭha leia awm) te hi a ni a. Oil Palm hmun hi a kum a pun ang zelin heng, leilunga leiṭha kan tih hrang hrang (SOC & Soil nutrients) te hi nasa takin a tlahniam zel a ni tih hi khawvel ram hrang hranga Scientist ten an hmuhchhuah tawh a ni a; India ram leh Mizoram chhung ngeia zirna-ah pawh hetiang tho hi hmuhchhuah a ni.  Thlai mal-chin dang – Kuhva leh ṭhelret te nena khaikhin pawhin Oil Palm hmuna leiṭha tlakhniam dan hi a nasa bik hle bawk.

Oil Palm hi leiṭha leh tui heh tak mai, “Heavy Feeder” a ni a. Kum 25 an nih chhoh chinah phei chuan ṭhelret, kuhva leh thlai kumhlun dang te aiin leiṭha an mamawhna a sang zual bik êm êm a. Kum 20 – 30 dang a vei leh meuh chuan Oil Palm hmuna leilung chu thlai dang chin leh nan pawh a tlak tawh mang loh khawpin a chhe dawn tihna a ni. Mizorama Oil Palm chingtu ṭhenkhatte pawhin hei hi an tawng chho ṭan mêk a ni.

Tut lui ruama Oil Palm hmun 15.12.2010

Nitrogen fertilizer hman nasat lutuk avangin pH (thur leh al zawng tehna) a tlahniam a, lei hi a thur tur aiin a thur phah ṭhin. Hei vang hian leia chaw ṭha (nutrients) kan tih te hi a tlem phah ta ṭhin a, tin, thlaiin a mamawh lemloh leh ṭhalo zawk (toxic elements) an tih te hi a san phah ṭhin bawk. Tin, Chemical fertilizer te phei hi luiah luang lut lehin, tui chhunga oxygen level a tihniam a, lui lam sa te nasa takin a nghawng a, mihringin lui lam sa kan lo ei ve leh aṭangin, kan taksaah harsatna chi hrang hrang kan lo tuar let ve leh chhawng ṭhin. Cancer tuar nasa Mizote tan phei chuan uar loh tur chi tak a ni zawk awm e.

Oil Palm leh Tui hna

Oil Palm hi leiṭha leh tui heh tak a ni tih kan sawi tawh a, an chhut danin Oil Palm kung khat hian nikhatah tui litre 300 lai a mamawha ngaih a ni. He tehkhawng anga teh chuan Oil Palm hmun hectare 2-a zauin nikhata tui a mamawh hi tun dinhmuna Mizorama cheng mipakhatin kum khat chhunga tui a mamawh aiin a tam fé zawk tihna a ni.

Oil Palm chin uarna ram, Indonesia leh Malaysia-ah te chuan Oil Palm chin an uar chinah an tui hna a kang nasa tih an sawi uar hle. Khawvel ramdangah pawh Oil Palm chin tamna hmun a tuihna kang chungchang an zirchianna chhiar tur tam tak a awm bawk. Mizoram ngeiah pawh kan tawng chho mek niin a lang. Dampa leh Mamit chhehvela Oil Palm chin uarna bula awm te chuan, Oil Palm chin nasat a nih hnuah tui hna a kang nasat thu an sawi ve mêk bawk.

Oil Palm hmunah hian ruahtui luanglut aiin a luangral a tam zawk a, lei chhunga tui hna insiam tur (groundwater recharge) nasa takin a tlakhniam phah ta ṭhin a ni. Kan luitui te a kang mêk lai leh kan tuihna kang mêk te humhalh tura ram puma hma kan lak mup mup laia thlai tui heh tak mai, tuihna ti kang thei hial tur khawp, lo chin pun chiam hi a inchawbelo takzet a ni.

Oil Palm leh nunna nei chi hrang hrangte

Khawvel ram hrang hranga Oil Palm hmun ten ramsa leh nungchate chunga harsatna a siam dan leh pawi a khawih dan chi hrang hrang, scientist-te’n an zir chhuah, hmuh tur a tam khawp mai. Ram leilung mil bik leh awmna bik nei nungcha te phei chu a suat hneh hle a, Indonesia rama nungchate te hi a tuar nasa zual an ni. An rama ramsa awm bik – zawng chi khat Orangutan te, Sakei leh Samak te hi mang mai hlauhawmah an awm phah mêk a ni.

Khawvel hmun hrang hranga Oil Palm-in nungchate a nghawng pawi  dan mithiam te zirna 9143 lai mai lak khawma en dik a ni a, heng zirna awm tawh 9143 zawng zawng te hian Oil Palm hmun hian ramsa leh nungcha hrang hrang, a te ber aṭanga a lian ber thlengin a nghawng nasain, a ti chimit nasa hle tih an tarlang a ni (Savilaakso et al. 2014).

India rama Wildlife Scientist ṭha ber pawl, Dr. T.R. Shankar Raman chuan Mizoramah ngei, Oil Palm hmunin nungchate chunga nghawng a neih dan hi a lo zirchiang tawh a. He a zirchiannaah hian Dampa ngawpui, Oil Palm leh Teak hmun, Lo (ringthar) leh Chul ram (kum 0 – 8 léng) te a khaikhin a. Heng hmun hrang hrang chhunga thingkung awm te, sava chi hrang hrang awm te, an bit dan leh an tam dan te uluk taka a zir chian hnuah, “Oil Palm hmunah thingkung a tlem ber a, teak hmunin a dawt a, lo leh ngawah te a tam ber thung. Loa thingkung bit zawng hi Oil Palm hmun aiin a sang a, ngawchhung a sang fal hle. Oil Palm hmunah mau a awm lo a, chulah erawh mau a tam thung. Sava chi hrang 107 (ramhnuai-sava 94, dai-sava 13) chhinchiahah Oil Palm hmunah an tlem ber a (10), teak hmunin a dawt (38); Ngaw hmawr (58) leh ngaw chhungrilah (70) te chuan ringthar (50) aiin a sava chi hrang awm zat a tam zawk thung. Loah leh ngawa ramhnuai sava tam dan a thuhmun a, Oil Palm hmun aiin 304%-in a sang a, Teak hmun aiin 87%-in a sang bawk. Thlai mal chin-bingna aiin Loah leh ngawah sava chi thuhmun a tam zawk a ni” tih an hmuchhuak a, kum 2016 khan khawvela Sava lam chanchin zirbingna chanchinbu ngaihhlut ber “Ornithological Applications-ah” tihchhuah a ni nghe nghe (Mandal & Shankar Raman, 2016).

Chul ramah thing leh mau a ṭhan chak avang te, mau hmunin ngai a awh leh hma avangtein lo neih hi Monocrop plantation (thlai kumhlun mal-chin) aiin sava humhalh nan a ṭha zawk a, nungcha dangte chungchangah pawh a nih dan tho a ni tih chiang takin a hriat theih bawk. Oil Palm hmunah hian Sanghal, Thehlei, Sakuh leh Sazaw te ramvak miten an chang ṭhin nia sawi a ni a. Heng ramsa chi li te hi an damkhawchhuahna tura engpawh ei thei a, khawikipa khawsa thei ‘Generalist species’ an tih te an ni tih erawh kan hriatchian a pawimawh.

Oil Palm hmun atana thehchhuah tur ramngaw kan ngah tawk em?

Forest Survey of India (FSI) report hnuhnung berin (2019) a tarlan danin Mizoram zau zawng aṭanga teha zaa 85.41 hi ramngaw a ni. Report hmasa zawk (2017) nen tehkhin chuan ramngaw 180.49 sq km lai kan hloh tihna a ni. Ramngawin a tuam chin (85.41%) hi tam hle angin a lang nain, kan hriat atana pawimawh chu ‘Satellite hmanga en’ a ni tih hi a ni. Satellite thlalak hian plantation hrang hrang leh ramngaw tak tak a thliar hrang lem lo a, Satellite aṭanga ramngaw tuamchin anga lang kha a hmunah chuan ngaw chhah a awm vek kherlo tihna a ni. Tin, kan ramngaw neih dan hi a fahrah puan hlai a; ngawdur hi ar hmai tiat lek a ni.

Oil Palm demonstration plot, Serchhip 03.03.2011

Mizoramah hian humhalh bik ram (Protected Area) 1,728.75 sq km a zau kan nei a. Hei hi kan ram zau zawng aṭanga tehin zaa 8.20 chauh a ni a. FSI report-a ngaw tuam chin anga a tarlan 77.21% zet chu humhalh bik hmunin a huamlo tihna a ni. A kum telin heng kan ngaw te hi an heu duai duai reng bawk a ni.

Thingphun runpui te neiin, khawii emaw lai laia thingphun te hi a ṭangkai khawp mai, mahse ramngaw puitling tawh te’n khuarel kalphunga an thawh tur ang tak (ecological role) kha a hen zo tak tak chuang lo. A awmsa humhalh hi a pawimawh ber mai, ram ruak leh rambuaah te, a remchan dan ang phunbelh zel pawh a uar zel bawk ila.

Lo neih/ Mizo lo neih nge ṭha thlai/thing mal chin bingna kalpui?

Mizoram sorkar chuan kan lo neih danin kan ram leilung, ramngaw leh nungchate a tih chhiat nasat êm avang leh chu chuan khuarel chhiatna leh harsatna hrang hrang mihringteah a thlen ṭhin hi ṭhaloa a hriat avangin a aiah thlai/thing kumhlun mal-chin-bing hi policy hrang hrang (Jhum Control, NLUP, MIP etc) hmangin a kalpuia. Amaherawhchu a hmalama kan tarlan tawh angin, heng thlai mal-chin-bingna nena buk chuan Mizo lo neih dan phung pangngai hi a thlanawm zawk daih lawi si a ni. Inkaihhruaina mumal leh leilung tana pawilo thei ang ber tur ruahman te, lo neih tihmasawn tur zawnga leilung enkawl dan duan chhuah te, vahchap sawngbawl dan ṭha zawk leh kan tualṭo thlai ngaihhluta uar te hian kan lo neihin a nghawng ṭhalo hi a ti tlem leh zual dawn a ni.

Nghalchawm rama Oil Palm hmun 07.05.2020

Oil Palm hmun atana ramngaw kan ṭhiah hian a chhehvel khawtlang ram neihna chanvo tam tak a ti danglama, he’ng miten ngaw aṭanga an eitur leh ṭuldang, danin a phal china an hman ṭangkai ṭhin kha an chan nghal vek bawk a ni. Lo neih hi kan pi leh puten an lo tih ṭhin dan, kan hnam nun zia nena inzawm tlat a ni a. Kan hun pawimawh neih te, kan thla bi thliah hming te, kan kut te leh khawtlang nun hi kan lo neih dan nen a inzawm tlat a ni, Zopa pumchuak thiamna (traditional knowledge) hlu êm êm ṭhahnemtak a ken tel bawk avangin um bo ai chuan tun aia ṭha lehzual leh hlawk lehzuala lo kan neih theih dan ngaihtuah te, kan tualṭo thlaite hlawk lehzuala thar dan tur zir chian te, leilung hausaknain rei tak, kan tu chhuan leh chhuan leh chhawng te thlenga, a daih theih nana hma lak a ṭul tawh hle a ni.

Khaikhawmna

Oil Palm chingtute hian hlawkna an chhar tak tak em? tih hi ngaihtuah tham tak a ni a. Oil Palm hmun din tirh leh a ṭiak enkawlna tur an dawn piah lam kha an tharchhuah hralhna aṭangin hlawkna an chang tak tak em? tih hi chhut fe tham a ni. Sum leh pai tam tak leichhuak anga tarlan a ni fo a, Oil Palm hmun neitu chhungkaw zat nena chawhrual chuan hlawkna tak tak an char chuang lo niin a lang. Tin, Oil Palm chingtu mi tam takin an Oil Palm hmun an suat leh tak duak avang hian hlawkna a tira sawihmuh an nih ang kha an chang lo a, an bei a dawng a ni tih a hriat theih bawk. Chutih rual chuan Oil Palm hralhna aṭanga sum la lut an awm tih erawh phat rual a ni lo; a chingtu an tam ang aiin a hlawkna teltu an tlem riau si hi rilru kaptu chu a ni.

Oil Palm rah leh a thartu. Image Courtesy – Bika Renthlei

Oil Palm hmun atan kan ram rohlu – kan ramngaw leh nungcha te hi kan ser ral mai ang tih a hlauhawm takzet a ni.  Mizoram hi sik leh sa inthlak chak lutuk (Climate Change) tuar nasa ber tur zinga an sawi kan nih mêk laia kan ram sik leh sa min vawn saktu – kan ramngaw leh nungchate dinhmun tiderthawng thei zawnga hmathar lak chiam mai hi mahni lulakna a nih loh pawhin a teuh viauin a rinawm! Intodelhna tura kan hmathlir hian sum leh pai hlawkna chauh nilvoin hlawkna tluantling zawk, khuarel chhiatna nasa tak thleng thei laka kan himna tur te, dinhmun hniam ber aṭanga sang ber thlenga kan inṭawm – kan sik leh sa, kan tui tlan leh kan boruak hip te tibawrhbang lo zawnga hmalakna te hi huam tel sela a duhawm takzet a ni.

Oil Palm-in ram leilung bakah nungcha chi hrang hrangte tana harsatna a thlen nasat zia leh, a chhehvela cheng mihringte tan pawh kawng hrang hranga harsatna a thlen dan hrechiang êm êm chunga sum leh pai tawktarha hetianga barhluih kan ni chho leh ta hian ngaihtuahna a ti thui a, kan ram min tihchhiat sak veka, kan hnam leh sakhua min chimih ṭhak mai hi pawi an ti lo em ni le? tia ngaihtuah theih tak a ni.

[Vanglaini (Mizo Daily) September 13, 2021-ah tihchhuah a ni]

Ziaktute:
Dr. David C. Vanlalfakawma, Asst. Professor, Dept. of Forestry, MZU
C. Zohmingsangi, Research Scholar, Dept. of Environmental Sciences, MZU
Dr. Lallianpuii, Scientist C, Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun
Dr. Saipari Sailo, Scientist C, Zoological Survey of India, Jabalpur

Rawmi

Mizorama tualṭo mau leh rua kan neih zingah Rawmi (Botanical name – Dendrocalamus sikkimensis) hi a lian ber a, a ṭhat duhna hmunah chuan ‘ui pum tia tia a ni thei e,’ an ti ṭhin; a tlang tehkuala 1ft hi chu a vantlang pawl a ni. Awm duhna hmun bik nei, Zo bawm (1000 – 1800m msl) a nih avangin mau leh raw dang ang chuan Mizoramah hian a ṭona hmun a tam lo a, Zo nazawngah a ṭo hek lo. Hei vang hi ni maw, raw dang ang chuan kan hmang nasa lo deuh. Mizoram bakah India hmarchhak state dang – Arunachal Pradesh,  Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Nagaland leh Sikkim-ah te a tualṭo a, tin, China leh Bhutan-ah te pawh a tualṭo bawk.

Rawmi, Mission Vengthlang, 2020

Raw lian tak (a lai hawlhtlanga 12 – 18cm), sang thei tak (17 – 22m), hung nei chi, chang dam zet mai a ni a, a pum a chhah lutuk loh avangin a deh a nuam viau bawk. Chutih rual erawh chuan a duap avangin engtiang taka tlo nge ni ang? Tih erawh ngaihtuah ngun deuh a ngai awm e. Tin, hmanraw dang hmanga sawngbawla tih tlo deuh pawh a ngai ngeiin a rinawm. Sikkim rama Bawṭe ho leh Lepcha ho chuan ‘Chungas’ siam nan an hmang uar hle a, chu chu tui leh bawnghnute bur atan an hmang ṭhin a, ran chaw atan an hmang ṭhin bawk. A hnah hi erawh bawng tan túr niin an sawi thung (Tewari, 1992). Kerala-ah kum 1992 khan lakluh a nia, anni chuan pal atan te, tui dawt atan te an hmang a (Jijeesh et al., 2012), tin, lehkhapuan siamna atana hmantlak a nih thu finfiah a ni tawh bawk (Holstrom, 1993). Mizote pawhin hmanlai chuan tui um atan an hmang nasa ṭhin a, thirdeng pûm atan te, dâp atan te pawh an hmang ṭhin bawk.

Rawmi tâm, Keifang, 2020

Rawmi tâm

Mau leh rua hian tâm dan hlun deuh bik chi hnih an nei a chung te chu tampui (gregarious) leh tam-kahpah (sporadic) a ni a, mau chi ṭhenkhat chu kum tina tam (annual) te pawh a awm ve bawk. ‘Chumi chi chu chutiang chuan a tâm’ tih ngawt hleihtheih a ni lo a, sik leh sa inher danin a nghawng dan leh a chi bul (seed source)-in kawngro a su viau niin a lang. Rawmi hi India rama a tâm an hriat theih hla ber chu kum 1885-a Sikim-a a tâm kha a ni a, Kalimpong chhehvelah kum 1916 chho khan tampui a thleng leh a, tin, Darjeeling chhehvelah kum 1991 khan tampui a thleng leh bawk (Sahoo, 1991).

Rawmi rah, Rengngo tlang, Dampa Tiger Reserve chhung, kum 2011 a mi (Inset: Rawmi chi fangkhat)

Mizoramah hian 1977 – 1979 chhung khan Sangau chhehvelah a kahpahin a tam a (Mohan Ram and Gopal, 1981), kum 2003 khan Serkhan chhehvelah a kahpahin a tam bawk a, tunhnaiah pawh a kahpah thoin hmun hrang hrangah a tam leh bawk a. Kum 2011 khan Rengngo tlang, Dampa Tiger Reserve chhungah a tâm a, a chi hi EF&CC leh a chi ka pêk mi ṭhenkhat te pawhin an kui ṭiak nual nghe nghe. Hemi hnu pawh hian khawi khawi emawah a tam pheuh pheuh a, nikum, 2020 khan Leitan, Mission Vengthlang, Keifang, Buhban leh Chalfilh tlang chheh vêlah a tâm bawk. Buhban leh Chalfilh a mi tihloh hi chu phun chawp vek a ni thung. A theih ang ang chu a hmuna tlawhin sample kan la a, amaherawhchu Covid avanga inkhuahkhirhna hrang hrang avangin duh angin kan bawhzuiin kan zirchiang hlei thei ta lo a, a uiawm tak zet a ni. Tin, heng chhinchhiah bakah pawh hian mautam rual leh a hnu deuhah khan hmun ṭhenkhatah a tâm thu sawi an awm bawk.

Saithah Forest Complex-ah Rawmi chi an kui ṭiak, 2011.

Rawmi plantation – a beiseiawm em?

Sawi tawh angin Rawmi hi Zo-bawm rua a ni a, tin, ngaw kara ṭo chi, ngaw thing-in a khai a ngai ṭhin. Chutianga rinchhan tur a thatna hmunah, boruak leh lei hnawng ṭhatna hmunah chuan pum lian pui pui a ni thei a, amaherawhchu rinchhan tur ṭha a awmlohnaah chuan a ṭhan a ṭhu deuh ṭhin niin a lang. Tin, rua rau rauah chuan inthlahpung chaklo pawl tak, tuai chhuah tlem pawl tak a ni bawk.

Rawmi tuai, Dr. C. Biakmawia kawmthlang, Leitan a mi, 2012

Chuvang chuan Rawmi plantation hi engtiang chiaha kalpui nge an tum tih hi zawhna awm thei tak a ni. Mau leh raw dang anga ramngaw vah fai vek a, hal hnua a ṭiak phun tawp hian a nun chu a nung maithei, mahse khaitu tur thing awm lo, lei hnawng vawnghimtu thingkung leh hnimdang awmlohnaah, ni sain a em tlawk tlawkna hmunah an beisei anga lian an thar thei angem? Tih ngaihtuahnaah a awm. Ngaw karah a ṭiak hi phun ta pheuh pheuh se hlawk tham tharchhuah a har viau si angem? Tin, ngaw kara phun ngawt hi Revised National Bamboo Mission (NBM) hmathlir nen chuan a inpersan viau bawk si.

Rawmi hung, a tâm hnu, Mission Vengthlang, 2020

Tin, buan a hmaa kherh kan ni em lovang chu maw, eng atana hmanah nge an hisap? tih hi zawhna lian tak a ni bawk. Ram danga an hman dan te thlir chuan rua ho zingah pawha hman lar loh pawl tak a ni a, a ṭhat bik riauna an hre fuh te pawh a lo ni reng thei tho bawk e. Engpawh nise bamboo composite atan chuan a hman tlak ngei ang tih erawh a rinawm. A van avang leh a len avang ringawta bawh huam huam chi a ni angem?

Rawmi hi ngaw karah, rinchhan tur thing a awmnaah chuan a lian thei bik hle. Rengngo Tlang, Dampa Tiger Reserve, 2011.

Rawmi hi NBM Guidelines-in chin tur a thlan zingah a tello a. Amaherawhchu he guidelines hian tualṭo mau, a chingtu tur te duhthlan leh Industry lama hman ṭangkai theih te chu chin a remti thung. Mau-raw plantation siam tur hi sorkarin a thlang fel tawh a, chu’ng mite chuan Rawmi hi an lo thlang a nih chuan sawisel tur a awm lovang. Tin, Industry lamin Rawmi hi an lo mamawh viau avang emaw Industry lamin a ṭhatna an hre viau a, an lo duh ru viau tawh emaw a nih tal pawhin sawisel theih a ni lovang. Chutiang chu a nih loh hlauh erawh chuan NBM kaltlanga ṭanpuina kan beisei hi kan dawng theilo ang tih te pawh a hlauhawm thei viau mai.

Rawmi tâmna hung kiangah Sanghal inbualna, Rengngo Tlang, Dampa Tiger Reserve, 2011

Tlangkawmna

Nikum khan Covid inkhuahkhirhna vanglai tak maiin Dendrocalamus brandisii leh D. latiflorus ṭiak supply tur zawnna tender tihchhuah a ni a, kuminah Covid avang bawka inkhuahirhna kalpui a nih lai taka Rawmi ṭiak supply tur zawnna tihchhuah a ni leh hi ngaih kawih a awl khawp mai. A hnathawktu te hnena, Sawrkarin, vehbur a khawn zawh hlima sum tam tak sênna tur tender tihchhuah hi a bawplawka lo la duh an awm a nih pawhin a mawh love. Tin, nikumah hmun ṭhenkhatah a kahpahin a tam a, a tira Sorkar Policy-a tel sa miah lo, tualṭo mah nise, kumina an han duh thar ta thut hian ngaihtuahna a ti kal thui viau bawk. Nikuma hmun ṭhenkhata tâm kha a chi lain tuin emaw, sorkara tlatlum takin, a lo kui ṭiak bik khiau em ni ang? tia ngaihtuah loh a har viau bawk.

Engpawh nise sorkarin kan rama tualṭo ngei tihpun duhna thinlung a pu ve ta hi erawh a lawmawm tak zet a, hmasawnna ropui tak niin a lang. Engtianga tih puitlin tur chi nge ni a, eng ‘ecosystem‘ nge a mamawh tih te, a hmanna tur leh a hralhna tur chenin thui tak an thlir lawkin ruahmanna an siam lawk ngei beisei ang.

Thu laknate:

Holstrom, J. 1993. Utilization of bamboos in the Sikkim Himalayas. BIC-India Bullettin 3(1):22 – 24.

Jijeesh, C.M., Seethalakshmi, K.K. and Raveendran, V.P. 2012. Flowering, reproductive biology and post flowering behaviour of Dendrocalamus sikkimensis Gamble, in Kerala, India. The Journal of the American Bamboo Society 25(1): 36-42

Mohan Ram, H.Y. and Gopal, B.H. 1981. Some observation on the flowering of bamboos in Mizoram. Curr. Sci. 50:708 – 710.

Sahoo, A.K. 1991. Flowering of Bamboos in the foothills of Darjeeling Himalaya. Indian Forester, 117:84

Tewari, D.N. 1992. A monograph on bamboo. IBD, Dehradun

[Vanglaini XXXVI, May 14,2021-ah tihchhuah a ni]

Humhalh bîk hmuna pawikhawihna

Sorkar leh khawtlang humhalh

Mizoramah hian Sorkar humhalh ramngaw leh lui a awm a, khawtlang ṭangrualin an humhalh ramngaw leh lui engemaw zat a awm bawk. Chutiang bawkin Sorkarin dan hmanga a din ‘Social forestry/community forestry’ hmun engemaw zat a awm a, heng te hi Forest Department hnuaia scheme hrang hrang, 1990 hnulam a mi a ni tlangpui hlawm a. Hetih rual vek hian khawtlang ṭangrual – YMA, YLA, MTP, MUP, MHIP adt ten an humhalh a, an enkawl ‘Social Forestry’ emaw ‘Community Forestry’ emaw a awm leh a. Ṭhenkhat phei chu Lal lal laia khawtlangin ramhâk-a an lo neih te a ni hlawm. Sorkarin a dinchhuah vantlang ramngaw te hi khawtlang nen ṭangruala inhlawhna siam sak paha ramngaw siam belhna tura din a ni a, a tir lamah phei chuan ‘Entry Point Activities’ (EPA) an tih mai, khawltlang tan hmasawnna ruhrel siamna tur ‘sum fang’ a keng tel a, chumi hmang chuan gas bur te an sem a, kawng an lai a, chawlhbuk te an sa a, kailawn te siamin, khawtlangin an mamawh leh an duhte Village Forest Development Committee (VFDC) in an sum neih mila a rel ang zelin din a ni ṭhin. Tunhma deuh khan pawisa dawn leh hnathawh inmillo nia sawi a awm fo ṭhin a, EPA sum an hman danah hian VFDC ten mawh an phur thui hle a, Department lam aimahin mawh an phur zawkin a lang.

Rawpuichhip YMA Social Forestry

Heng Sorkar hnuaia VFDC plantation hrang hrang te endik hian ṭum engemaw zat, Forest Division hrang hrangah kan feh chhuak ve tawh a, kan kalna apiangah zawhna inang kan zawt ṭhin a, mahni ta anga ena, a chhiat a ṭhat a mahni insengsoa hmalak emaw, khawtlanga hmalak emaw a harsat an rin thuin mi an chhang tlangpui ṭhin. Mahni ta anga en lo, Sorkar hnuaia inhlawhfakna chikhat anga ngai an ni tlangpui tihna a ni mai awm e. Chutih rual vek chuan khawtlang ṭangrualin, Sorkar puihna telloa an din leh an enkawl khawtlang ramngaw te zirchiangin khaw hrang hrangah kan fehchhuak tawh bawk. Heng khawtlang enkawl ramngaw te hi a ṭhangduangion a hlawhtling êm êm thung. Khawtlangin ramngaw an enkawla pawikhawihna thleng hlekah pawh khawtlang thikthu a chhiain an phak tawka nain ro an rel mai ṭhin. A chhan ber ni a lang chu mipui vantlangin a neitu thinlung an put vang a ni.

Sihphir Vengthar YMA Sanctuary, Puansen

Heng ‘Social forestry’ chi hnih te hi a huam chin leh a inzarpharh dan chu inthlau tak a ni a, hlawh neia enkawl leh hnatlanga enkawl a nih vang pawh a ni maithei e. Chutih rual chuan khawtlang ṭangrualin hnatlanga an enkawl te hi zimin tlem zawk hle mah sela a lêt tam takin a hlawhtling zawk a ni tih mit lawng pawhin a hmuh theih a, kan ram rohlu a chang der mai. Kawng kama thing, YMA flag rawnga an chei avang maia a him bik tlat te hian YMA kan zahna a lantir rualin neitu nihna thinlung kan put tel vang a ni tih a ti lang chiang hle.

Nghafuan ven leh luidung humhalh

Mizo te hian nghafuan kan veng ṭhin a, tunhma lama nghafuan an ven dan leh tunlaia kan ven dan chu a letling ta hlauh a. Chutiang zelin lui hnaia khaw awm ten an khaw luidung te an humhalh a, nasa takin luia nungcha te an pun phah a, zin veivakte tana hmuhnawm tham, a khawtlang tan pawh a intihtheihpui tham a ni fur mai. Heng humhalhtu te hian an ṭhahnemngaihnaa ti an ni a, Sorkar ṭanpuina emaw beiseia ti an ni lo. Chutih rual vek chuan khawtlangin an humhalh piah lam, Sorkarin dan chi hrang hrang hmanga a humhalhte erawh thiam thil bik leh hmanraw chi dang deuh hmang tan lo chuan man hleihtheihloh khawpin sangha leh nungcha chi dang a vang viau thung ṭhin.

Tuipui D YMA luidung humhalh chhunga sangha. Thlalatu: Avena Renthlei

Ramngaw leh nungchate humhalh kawngah mipuite nena ṭanrual a pawimawhzia hriain India Sorkar chuan mipuite chakna hmanga humhalh a, enkawl a duh avanga heng ‘Social forestry’ kaihhnawih ho hi a duanchhuah a ni a. Sorkar Social forestry programme-in a huam ve siloh Mizorama hlawhtling êm êm si chu khawtlangin luidung a humhalh leh nghafuan a ven te hi a ni awm e.

Mahni insengsoin, sorkar puihna telloin, ṭhahnemngaihna avang liau liauin a thim a var thlu lovin khawtlangin nghafuan an veng a, an khaw ram china luidung an humhalha, tha leh tui tam tak an seng ral a, sorkar humhalh ai mahin a lo hlawhtling ta zawk fo ṭhin. Khawtlang inpêkna hi a hluin a zahawm êm êm a, National Forest Policy 1988 duangtu te pawh hian hetiang êm êma inpêkna nasa hi an ngaihtuah thleng pha kher loin a rinawm.

Tuipui D YMA luidung humhalh chhunga sangha. Thlalatu: Avena Renthlei

Hetiang taka mi inpê te zarah luia nungchate pawh an lo inthlah pung chho ve leh ṭan a, hmun ṭhenkhatah phei chuan lui kantu te tan pawha hmuhnawm khawp a tling hial a. Chutiang thleng pha tur inlungrualna leh ṭhahnemngaihna bak hmanraw dang an nei lo. Khawtlangin a humhalh leh a vên chhunga
luia sangha te a ruka lo man te, nghafuan lo rut ta mai te an awm fo ṭhin a. Heng hi khawtlang zahlohna lian tak a ni a, ram dan bawhchhiatna lian tak a ni bawk. Ruihhlo zawrh leh kawl avanga khawtlang leh ram dan bawhchhia te nen ang khat reng a ni.

Khawtlang humhalh luidunga sangha man

Tunhnaiah Phaizau khawtlangin luidung an humhalhah miṭhenkhat ten bomb hmangin sangha an man thu a thang chiam a, Phaizau khawtlang mai bakah humhalhtu pawl hrang hrang ten thuchhuah an siam bawk. Mi ṭhenkhatten “Ngawi dawha tla a ni e” tiin an lo chhan ve bawk. Bomb hmang emaw ngawi dawh hmanga man a ni emaw Sorkar dan dinglai “Mizoram Fisheries (Ammendment) Act 2016, 6:1(a) (c) & (d)” bawhchhiatna a ni ve ve tih erawh a chiang viau mai. Bomb hi lo hmang ta se phalna neilova puak thei thil kawl an ni tihna a ni tel bawk. Tin, khawtlang humhalh lai a mi kher kher a nih avang hian vantlang tana hnawksak pawh an ni tel bawk ang. Riverine Reserve area chhunga mi an man avang pawh hian hrem theih an la ni leh zel awm e. Vantlangin an humhalh hmuna dan bawhchhiaa nungcha te chunga pawikhawihna thleng hi ramngaw leh nungcha humhalh kawnga mipuite nena thawhho pawimawh zia hriaa National Forest Policy 1988 duangtu te khan lo hre ve se an rilru a na ngawt ang.

Phaizau khaw thuchhuah leh humhalhtu pawl hrang hrang te thuchhuah aṭanga a lan danin he pawikhawihnaah hian khawtual mi bakah dan siamtu zinga mi a tel ve ni awm tak a lang hi a pawiin a vanduai thlak takzet a ni. Danin a phalloh hmanrua an hman piah lamah khawtlang humhalh chhung a mi kher kher an man hi thil ṭhalo tak a ni a, khawtlang zahlohna lian tak a ni. Ram leh hnam tana thawk tura mipuite thlanin a mipuite humhalh chhunga mi ngei, dan phalloh hmanga a man nia lang hi chhuichian tham niin a lang. Hemi kawngah hian a changtu Department lam aṭanga hmalakna emaw thawm hriattur tun thlenga a la awm lo hian Mizoram hmun hrang hranga dan phalloh hmanga sangha man ṭhinte a ti huangtau sawt ang tih a hlauhawm hle. India dan hnuaia Environment kaihhnawiha hleilenna thleng ṭhin chungchanga mahni kut zala laa “Suo moto” thei te hmalakna thawm hriattur a la awm lo leh zel te pawh hi sorkar humhalh aia mipui humhalh a hlawhtlin zawk ṭhin dan te nen pawh hian a in chawbe viau tho bawk.

“World Fishery Day” denchhena November 21, 2020-a Fishery Department changtu minister-in luidunga nungchate phalna neilova man te leh hmanraw hman phalloh hmangte chunga hremna lekkawh theih a nih dan te chiang takin a sawi a. Kha dan hmang khan tuna Phaizau khawtlang humhalh a dan phalloh anga chete chungah hian rorelna lekkawh a ni dawn em? Tih hi Zoram mipuiten kan thlir a, kan ngaihchang reng a ni. FIR lut kherlo pawha mahni kut zala laa rorelna lekkawh theihna tura thuneihna nei te pawh hian an duh chuan hma an la thei reng tih te pawh mipui ten kan hre khiau mai. Pawikhawihtu te hrem loha an chhuah fo hian dan pawisaklohna a thlen a, sual a ti punlun ṭhin. Tun ṭuma luidunga dan bawhchhiatna thleng nia lang hi dan anga ngaihtuah a nih loh chuan dan pawisak lohna nasa zawk a thlen a hlauhawm tak zet a ni.

[Vanglaini Dec. 7, 2020-ah tihchhuah a ni]

Bamboo Now

Vawiin, September 18 hi World Bamboo Day a ni a, kumdang ang chu nise khawvel ram hrang hrangah, he ni denchhen hian, Mau-rua awmna leh awmlohnaah pawh eng eng emaw an huaihawt leh ngei ang.
Mizorama Bamboo Day liantham taka kan hman hnuhnun ber kha 2018 kha a ni a, khami denchhen khan a lawmna chi hrang hrang – technical session te, mau-rua hmanga thil siamchhuak ten an kutchhuak hmangin exhibition an nei a…fashion show emawni kha a lar ta ber lawi a, chanchinthar lamah pawh hmun a chang tam ta ber zawk awm e.

Mautak hmunah – Sawmkima

Kumina World Bamboo Day thupui chu ‘Bamboo now‘ tih a ni a, Mau-rua hmanga ei leh bara intodelh te, khawvel boruak chhe zel siam ṭhat te hi an thu ken laipui ber a ni. A bik takin ram rethei (developing countries) leh khawpui pawna awm (rural communities) te tan phei chuan intodelhna hnar, eizawnna tling a nih theih dan te, khawvel boruak chhe mêk tiziaawm tura mau leh raw ṭangkaina lam te hi mithiamte rilru sen nasatna a ni ta.

Mizopa dap chik

Mizoram hian mau lam chi kan ngah hle mai a, kan mau neih tam zawk erawh a nawlpui chuan kan hmang ṭangkai chiam lo a, mautak, rawnal, rawṭhing leh phulrua te hi kan hmang uarin kan hmang nasa hle a; Mizorama mau leh raw lam chia a tam ber pawh an ni bawk. Kut themthiam deuh te chuan rawngal te, sairil te pawh ṭangkai takin an hmang thung lawi a.

Lemziak mual mawng lama rawnal hung

Mau hmanna hi a tam a, kan hman duh dan a zirin mau chi hrang hman tlak lehzual deuh bik te pawh a awm awm e. China ho chuan an mau chhuanvawr, Moso hmanna tur hrang hrang an duang a, chumi mil chuan Moso sawngbawlna tur khawl an siam mai bawk a. Keini erawhin hachhek leh chempui piahlam chu kan la siamchhuak hleitheilo a, themthiam leh remhre zual ṭhenkhat ten Bamboo vinegar ur chhuahna khawl te, mau-meihawl rawhna te, mau phelsinna te an duangchhuak ve mêk bawk a.

Mau-meihawl, Mizopa siam

Mau hman ṭangkaina hria tam zawk chuan khawvel ramdanga mau an hman ṭangkai dan a bikin, furniture siamnana hman an sawi mawi a, chuvang chuan Mizorama mau kan neihsa te hi laktlakloh niin an hria a. Mi ṭhenkhat thung chuan Bamboo composite board (Mau – thingzai leh board/matply) siam te an sawi mawi a, matply industry kan nei reng a, Mizorama mau leh raw tualṭo hmangin Bamboo matply an siamchhuak reng tawh zawk tih an hre lo ni maw, ramdang mau hmang chauha siam theih niawm thawthanga sawiin Mizorama mau leh rua te hi tihtlakloh chhuahin an chhuah ve bawk a.

Mizote hian chemfawng atan raw zung/bul (rhizome) kan hmang nasa hle

Mizorama mau tualṭo chi hrang 20 chuang kan neihte zingah mautak hi a tam lawt laka, he mautak hi lehkhapuan ṭha chi siamna atana hmanraw ṭha bik a nih zia kan sawi tel hram teh ang. Lehkhapuan siamchhuahna tura chakkhai ṭha ber te zinga mi kan ngah teh lul nen a lam kan la hawi hleitheilo a. Hetilam sawi thawm a rik apiangin a hre ril deuh ten Panchgram-a paper mill (Cachar Paper mill) an tlakchhiat thu an lo sawi ve var zel bawk a. Anni an tlakchhiat avanga keini kan lo tim ve ringawt lai hi hriatthiam a har viau. Eirukna a nasat vanga tlachhia niten an sawi…eiru ve nghal turah an Mizo puite min ngai a nih loh vek pawhin eiruk ve an tum a nianga tih ngaihtuah mai a awl viau.

Bamboo Activated Charcoal powder Mizopa siam

Mizorama mau te ṭangkai lehzuala kan hman a, ei leh bara intodelh theihnana hmang tur chuan tun aia nasa zawka kan zirchian a ṭul. A vawnṭhat dan ṭha zawk leh man man zawk te, a tuai khawrh dan mumal leh sawngbawl dan ṭha zawk te, a tisa chhung ril awm dan leh nihphung te chena zirchian a ngai awm e. Heng hriatna hmang te hian eng atan nge hmang ila ṭha ber ang a, eng atana hmanin nge ramin a hlawkpui ber ang? tih te pawh a chhut chhuah theih awm e.

Ei leh bara Mizoram kan intodelh theihna tura kan vawkpa sut nghak, Pathianin kan rama a dah sa kan mau leh rua te hi kan ser ve a hun ta e. Bamboo Now!

Mau leh raw kaihhnawih article dang chiar duh tan:
http://bambusapiens.com/raw-chi-tha-bihchianna/
http://bambusapiens.com/mau-mawlsawmna/

WHY EXOTIC?

“Mizoṭawng chanchinbua Mizoṭawnga thuziak ve si ṭawng danga thupui dah kher, Mizoṭawng a hman theih lo em ni…?” tih thinlung I pu maithei. Ni, Mizorama thing leh thlai, mau leh rua te hi khawvel huap pawha zahpuiawmloh an ni chunga ramdang thing leh thlai, mau leh rua ten ngaihsan leh ngaihhlut an hlawh zel a, thlan an nih zawk zel dan hi han ngaihtuah ve mah teh? He Article thupui-a sapṭawng hi i ngaimawh chuan Mizoram dinchhuahna tur nia an sawi, ramdang thilte hi i ngaimawh ve tho dawn lo’m ni?

Mizoram hi thlai engkim ṭhat duhna niin mi tam takin an sawi ṭhin a, a dik thui viau maithei, ṭha duh hauh lo pawh a awm ve ngei tho awm e. Ei leh bara kan intodelh theih dan tur hi kan sorkar hotute ngaihtuah ber leh vei ber a ni a, mipuite pawhin chumi tithlawhtling tura an hmathlir a zirin kan thlang tling ṭhin ni pawhin a lang bawk. Hmalakna tur hrang hrang kan duan zingah hian kan rama awmsa hman ṭangkai lam ai chuan hmundanga mi chaw lut tur zawnga hmathlir hi a tam ber zel niin a lang bawk, a bikin thlai leh ran vulh/khawi chi hoah hian a hluar zual. Heng hi a ṭha ber em? Kan hlawhtlin pui reng em? tih hian chhuizui leh ngaihven zui a hlawh lem lo viau bawk niin a lang.

Exotic chu eng nge?
Exotic tih hi ecology ṭawngkamah chuan mikhual sawina a ni a; tualṭo ni lo, hmun danga mi lak luh sawina a ni. Tualṭo ni lo, ramdang a mi lak luh hian a awmna tharah nghawng chi hrang hrang a neih theih avangin biodiversity leh ecology lama zirmite chuan an duh lo hle. Nghawng a neih dan erawh a inchen vek lo a, enkawl zawh loh khawp hial a nghawng nei thei te, nghawng na lutuk lem lo te pawh a awm bawk.

Mizoramah hian intodelhna tur project lian tham a awm apianga langsar nghal êm êm zel chu ramdang a mi – thlai, thing leh thei chi lak luh hi a ni a. Khawii ramah emaw an hlawhtlinpui zia thu leh a man a to zia te, miin an duh zia te, a ṭhat duh zia te hi nasa takin an tlangaupui ṭhin a, ei leh bara kan intodelh theihna tur kawng awlsam ber niin kan ngai tlangpui zel bawk. Kawng awlsam hi kan zawng lutuk zawk a ni mai angem? Hybrid species emaw tissue culture hmanga siam an nih vang emaw hian kan ngaisang viau zel a, Mizorama tualṭo te ai hian kan dah sanga, hlawhtlin pui theih zawkah kan ngai niin a lang. Chumi piah lamah chuan a chi leh a ṭiak supply te pawh hi a hlawk viau maithei bawk!

Exotic species tena Mizoram Agro-ecosystem a nghawng theih dan te hi chu kan hotute hian an ngaihtuah thleng vek turah ngai ila. Tin, thlai chi kan lakluh te hi Mizoram sik leh sa, leilung mil tura duan a ni em? tih te pawh an ngaihtuah tel vek turah ngai bawk ang. Ram danga a ṭhat duh avangin kan ramah a ṭha duh ve kher angem? tih te pawh an enchhin hmasa vek turah ngai ila. International market-a a man te pawh an chhut hmasain an zir chiang vek bawk-ah ngai ila, chumi market-a pho chhuah theih dan tur te nen lam an ngaihtuah vek turah ngai ang.

Exotic species leh a mikhualna ram
Exotic species te hian an awmna thar hi an ngeih vek kher lo a, an ṭha tak tak vek kherlo a, a ṭhan a muanga, rah seng tur mumal a awm lo fo. Hetiang hi a tuartu ber chu a enkawltu, huan neitute an ni ṭhin. A hralhna kawng a bo êm avanga mipui te tawrhna leh beidawnna thlentu tam zawk pawh hi exotic species te bawk hi a ni. Hralhna awmsa tura ngaih tam tak hi kan chin pun veleh hian beisei aiin a hralhna lam hi a kawngbo leh riau ṭhin niin a lang. Kan zirchiang tawk lo nge ni anga, kan chin pun chhungin an lo duh leh lo thut?

Ṭhenkhat ve thung erawh chuan an ngeih leh lutuka, hnim leh thlai tualṭo, sa leh sangha awm sa te pawh tibuai vek khawpin an pung chak thung. Chutiang chu Mizoramah pawh hmuh tur a awm nual mai – Japan hlo, Shillong Tlangsam (Lantana camara – Shillong par, Par arsi, Lalmawia hling par ti tein an sawi bawk) leh Bihar hlo/Hlo thar (Ageratina spp) te hi a hnawksak langsar zual a ni awm e. Palak dila sangha awm sa te aia tha zawka an ngaih avanga sangha chi khat, khawvel pawhin top 100 invasive alien-species a a puan hial, Tilapia avangin sangha chi awmsa te a mang ti tih ta der mai. Kan Mizo pangpar, Mizo chanchin leh thawnthu a hmun pawimawh tak luahtu te chu hmuh tur a vang tawh hle.

Pathian thil siam dan hi a ropuiin a mak a, a ruahmanna hi a felfai khawp mai. Thil nung chitin tan ramri a kham, an awmna tur chin te, an awm lohna tur chin te fel takin a duang a, mihring te hian chu ramri chu kan zah thiam a pawimawh tak zet a ni. Sik leh sa, leilung awm dan te hi Pathianin thilnung te tana ramri a kham chu a ni a. Leilung, sik leh sa leh thlai ṭo te hi a inkungkaih tlata, thing leh thlai ṭo a zirin nungcha chi hrang hrang a awm ve leh ṭhin. Mizo upa te chuan lo atan pawh rampui chang ṭha an duh deuh kher ṭhin a, a lei a that vang a ni. Lei a ṭhatna chhan kha thing hnah leh ṭang leh a zar tla, tawih ralin leiṭha a siam vang a ni a, chu chu ecology ṭawngkamah chuan nutrient cycle an ti a, he cycle hmang hian thlai hian an awmna hmun a colonized ṭhin. Chu hmanrua tho chu exotic species kan tih te pawh hian rawn hmang vein thlai leh thing awmsa te a dip ral mai ṭhin. Chu chuan leiṭha siamtu soil microbe te, ramsa leh nungcha dang thlengin a nghawng ṭhin.

Mizorama Exotic Species lar zualte
Tun ṭumah chuan ramdang thing leh thlai, rua leh mau tam tak zingah thingchang thlai, thlai kumhlun leh rua leh mau, Sorkar Policy hrang hrangte avanga kan chawkluhte kan thlur bik ang.

Eucalyptus:
Ecucalyptus spp. hi Mizo chuan “Nawhalh thing” tiin kan sawi mai ṭhin a. India rama Commercial Agroforestry plantation-ah chuan an hlawhtlin pui ber pakhat a ni. Amaerawhchu tuihna (Water table) a tihbuai nasat avangin state tam zawkah chuan an ma leh thuai a, hmun tlemteah chauh chin chhunzawm a ni. Mizoramah pawh 1976 – 77 hnu lam khan uar taka chin a ni a, amaherawhchu hlawhtling taka enkawl erawh a tam lo niin a lang. Kung lianpui pui erawh khawi khawiah emaw hmuh tur a la awm nual.

Teak:
Tunhma chuan Teak (Tectona grandis) hi Forest Department plantation-ah chin a ni ber ṭhin a, mimal huanah chuan phun a ni meuh lo. Kum 1985 – 87 chho aṭangin Sorkar policy (Land Use Policy) avangin mimal tan pawh Teak huan neih a lo theih ta a, Mizorama plantation lian leh tam ber hi Teak plantation a lo ni ta a ni. Mizo pa ti ti-ah chuan Teak huanah ramsa an tla duh lo, a kungah eng sava mah an fu duhlo tih a ni ṭhin. Hei hi a chhan ber nia lang chu Teak rah leh hnah te hi nungchate tana chhenfakawm a awm loh vang a ni. Tin, Teak hian bawmtu hrik chi hnih a nei nain chung hrik (Defoliator leh Skeletoniser) te chu Mizoramah hian a la awm mumalloh avangin a eitu tur sava pawh a la awm lo niin a lang. Chutih rual erawh chuan Teak zara sava fu hi hmuh tur a awm fo mai. Teak-in leilung a nghawng dan hi kan ram tana a ṭhatlohna lian ber chu a ni zawk awm e.

Teak-in leilung a nghawng dan hi kan ram tana a ṭhatlohna lian ber chu a ni zawk awm e.

Tung:
Tung (Aleurites fordii) hi NLUP hnuaiah kum 1991 hnulam aṭangin nasa taka chin a ni a, a hriak hralhna ṭha tak awm ni a sawi a ni. Kum 2018-a Mizorama Tung plantation chungchang zawtchiang tura a buaipuitu Department lama ka kal chuan a project zawhna a rei tawh avangin data min pek tur an neihloh thuin min lo chhang a. A hlawhtling lo hle tihna ni berin a lang.

Jatropha:
Kang damdawi (Jatropha curcas) buaipuina tur hian Mizoram Sorkar leh Godrej Company te chuan Crore 250 zet senna tur inremna an siam a, Mizoram Intodelhna Project (MIP) kaltlanga thawh tur a ni. A hunlai chuan khawi khawiah emaw hmuh tur a awm a, tunah erawh a vang leh ta viau mai. Bio-diesel siamchhuahna tham kan thar ta lo nge, a hnu leha sorkar ten an ngaihsak zuilo?

Red Oil Palm:
Oil Palm tia kan hriat lar, Red Oil Palm hi kum 2005 aṭanga buaipui ṭan a ni a. Mizorama Sorkarna fung chelhtu hmasa hmalakna, ministry tharin tihtakzeta a chhawm nun awmchhun a ni mai awm e. Ministry pahnih ngawtin an buaipui a ni bawk a, a chingtu an tamin Company pathum ngawtin min thutchilh ren rawn a. A chingtute tan hamṭhatna leh ṭanpuina hrang hrang an pe nasa bawk a, khaw tin deuhthawhah oil palm hmun hmuh tur a awm. Hun a kal deuh a, a buaipuitu company lam pawh a tahtawlin an inhnukdawk a. Kumin chhoah phei chuan oil palm huan neitu ten a kung an kit a, a hmun an ṭhiat leh ṭan ta! Hmun ṭhenkhatah phei chuan JCB te hial ruaiin a zung nen lama phoro turin an pawt phawi leh ta. A chi an sem tirha hralhna tur an hriat te khan an duh leh ta lo nge, Mizoramin kan thar hi a quality a hniam fal deuh? Nge nia kan tharchhuahna leh phurhchhuahna man a san avangin a hriak man a to phaha, hralhna turah kan hnawng? Zawhna a tam thei khawp mai. Environment tana a ṭhat tawkloh dan leh tuihna eikangtu a nih dan te pawh ziak a tam hle chunga buaipui kan nih erawh hre reng ila.

Raw chi hrang hrang:
Mautam chhawmdawlna BAFFACOS sum hmangin raw chi hrang hrang Mizoramah lakluh a ni a, 2010 thleng khan chi 11 zet lakluh a ni. Chu’ng zingah chuan Bambusa bambos an tih, Mizoin “Rawhling” tia kan lo vuah ve tak, mi ṭhenkhat ten kan ram hruaitu hming chawia a hming an lo vuah ve bawk hi a lar ber te zinga mi a ni awm e. Heng bakah hian Maudâng (Schizostachyum pergacile), Moso (Phyllostachys edulis), Bambusa balcooa, B. vulgaris vittata, B. vulgaris waminii, B. multiplex, Dendrocalamus asper, D. giganteus (Vai-rawpui), D. latiflorus leh P. mannii te hi mumal taka chhinchhiah chin an ni. Kum 2010-a NBM hnuaia plantation kan endikna hmun hrang hrangah Vairam aṭanga lakluh Rawṭhing leh Phulraw ṭiak an dawn nasat thu an lo sawi bawk.

Bambusa bambos… Rawhling

Heng Sorkar Policy hrang hrang avanga ramdang thing leh mau/rua leh kan lakluh te hi uluk takin chhut ta ila, a hlawhtlinna hmuh tur a tam lo hle a, Policy an kalpui tirha an hmathlir ang kha nise chuan raltiang ram kan thlen loh vek pawhin kan hmu pha vuai vuai tawhin a rinawm. Mipui thiamloh tam tak a awm ang a, Department lam tihfuh tawkloh pawh tam tak a awm ang. Thil pakhat chiang êm êm mai erawh chu heng ramdang thing leh mau kan lakluh te hian Mizoram hi a ngeih teh chiamlo tih hi a ni.

Tunah hian raw chi hnih kan buaipui leh ṭan mek a, chu’ng zinga pakhat zawk (D. latiflorus) phei chu BAFFACOS hunlaia Mizoram lakluh tawh a ni a, a chi dang – D. brandisii erawh Mizorama a luh hun chhinchhiah fel a awm lo thung. Heng raw chi hnih, a ṭualona hmuna ṭha tak tak mai, te hian Mizoram an ngeih angem? tih hi sawilawk thiam a harsa hle mai a, chutiang bawkin engtiangin nge an mikhualna ram hi a nghawng ang? tih hi ngaihruat thiam harsa tak a ni bawk. Tin, a tualṭona rama an hman dan leh an sawngbawl dan ngaihtuah hian khawvel ramdanga hralh tla tak ni tura sawngbawl chiam chi a ni angem? tih hriatthiam a har viau bawk. A hralhna tur awmsa thlap leh a hlawkzia hre sa chunga kan chin, kan hlawhchham pui tak te en chuan a hmanna tur leh a hralhna tur pawh kan la hriatloh han phurpui viau hi chu thil harsa tak a ni a, lo helh viau pawh hi a awm hle. Mau leh raw kaihhnawih industry lian tena an hman ṭangkai leh an duh zinga tello, India rama mau chin pun tura an thlan zingah pawha tel bawk silo an ni ve ve hi ngaihngam taka hmalak ti hartu a ni a. India ram state dang ten an uar vakloh, Sorkar laipui pawhin a la ngaihvenloh chi hnih hi kan risk fuh hlauh erawh chuan midangte tihhmuhtu kan ni thei ngeiin a rinawm. Heng Raw chi hnih bihchianna hi July 23, 2019 khan Vanglaini chanchinbuah tihchhuah tawh a ni a (hetah hian en theih a ni bawk http://bambusapiens.com/raw-chi-tha-bihchianna/), kan sawi chhunzawm tawh lovang. (Mau leh raw chungchang article dang hetah hian chhiar theih a ni bawk: www.bambusapiens.com/mau-mawlsawmna/)

Tlangkawmna
Mizoram thilte ngaisang tura kan infuih a, Mizoṭawng ngei pawh Kohhran meuhin hmang uar tura hma a lak mup mup laia Exotic species – ram dang thlai kan la ngaisang zawk a, chumi zara dinchhuah theih kan la inbeisei tlat leh intodelh theihna tur Policy-in chumi lam hlir a la hawi zel mai hi a lungchhiat thlak tak zet a ni. Kan rama awmsa, kan ram sik leh sa, leh leilung ngeih sa te tharhlawk zawka tharchhuah dan te, man man zawka hralhchhuah theih dan te ngaihtuah lova a bul atanga engkim zir thara, buaipui chawp a, bul ṭan ṭhat ngai thing leh thlai kan phurpuia kan ngaisang zawk tlat zel hi siamtu zahlohna lian tak, mahni ram leh hnam ngaihnêpna te pawh a ni hialin ka ring. Why Exotic?

[He article hi VANGLAINI (Mizo Daily)-ah July 3, 2020 khan tihchhuah a ni]

Hripui – Mihringte cho chhuah…?

Khawiah emaw hri a leng fo thin. Hri a len hian han chhui han chhui ila mihringte vang a ni tlangpui thin. Heng hrileng te hi thilsiam tinreng te a lo inbuk tawk leh theihna tura Khuanu remruat a ni…

Khawvelah hian hri a leng fo a, a ṭhen chu hmun zimteah a leng a (endemic), a ṭhen chu hmun zau zawkah (epidemic), a ṭhen erawhin khawvel pum a huap thung (pandemic). Mizoramah pawh hrileng kan tuar ve fo a, 1918 bawr vela “influenza” kha kan tawrh nat ber a ni mai awm e. Khaw ṭhenkhata Zawnghri leng kha an tuar viau bawk. Hri hi engvanga leng ṭhin nge ni ang tih hi zawhna lian tak a ni ang. Chhan hrang hrang a awmin a rinawm. Mi ṭhenkhat chuan ram engemawin ralthuam (Bio-weapon) atana an siam a nih an ring a, ramsa aṭanga kan kai chhawn ni a ngai an awm bawk. Tun ṭumah hian Ecology tarmitin kan thlir dawn a ni.

Khuarel thilthleng – Mihring vang

Khawvela thil thleng tam tak, “khuarel thilthleng” kan tih te hi khawvela chengten kan chenna kan enkawl danin a nghawngchhuah tam tak a awm a, mawhphurtu lianber te chu mihringte kan ni. Chu’ng khuarel chhiatna zingah chuan tuilian te, leimin te, thlipui te pawh a tel thei ang – In kan sak dan phung te, kawlphetha siamchhuahna tura tuikhuah avang te, boruak chhia kan tihchhuah nasat avang tea lo hluar ta an ni. Chutiang zelin khawvel sik leh sa danglam chak lutuk dan te, awmna hri te, dengue te leh khawṭhalo hri leng fote pawh hi mihringte khawsak dan phungin a tih hluar chhoh an ni ber mai.

Pathianin khawvel a duan danah hian thil engkim mai hi inbuk tawk leh inkamki tawkin, inmamawh tawnin a siam a, chu inbuktawn chu a lo danglam hlek hian harsatna eng eng emaw a lo piang ṭhin. Chung zinga pakhat chu hrileng hi ni ngeiin a lang. Hri hi mihring te chungah lo pawh a leng fo a, tun hnaiah pawh vawk pul hri te, arpul hri te, Saza hri te a leng a. Mihringte zingah pawh Ebola te, SARS te, Swine flu te, Avian flu te bakah nantna hri chi hrang hrang a leng ṭhin a, Covid 19 (SARS CoV-2) a leng leh mêk bawk. Heng zawng zawng hi a chhan dik tak hrelo mah ila, Ecological imbalance vang a ni thui hle tih a hriat theih.

Hripui léng tawh ṭhenkhat – Ecology tarmit aṭangin

  1. 1918-a Spanish flu, mi maktaduai 10 chuangin an thihpui, Mizote pawhin Influenza tia kan lo hriat leh kan lo tawrh ve pawh kha tui-sava aṭanga kaichhawna ngaih a ni a, kha hripui kha “Mother of all pandemics” (Morens and Taubenberger, 2018) an ti hial a. Khami a chinah khan a khat tawkin awmna hri (infuenza) hi khawvelah a leng renga ngaih a ni. Kha hripui kha Spain aṭanga darh nia ngaih a nih avanga Spanish flu tih a ni nain khatiang taka a darh a, hriatchhuah a nih hma khan vei engemaw zat an awm tawhin an ring a, kum 1917 khan a darh tawhah an ngai hial. A lo chhuahna bul tak pawh hi rindan chi hrang hrang a awm a, France a nih ring te, China a nih ring te, Britain a nih ring te pawh an awm bawk. Indopui pakhatna hunlai a ni a, Ecological crisis nasat vanglai tak a ni bawk. Indopui lai a nih avangin sipai raldote chu hmun chep tak takah an inêkbeng a, an eitur vawk leh sava lam chi – ar, vatawk adt. an vulh bawk. Tui-sava aṭangin vawkin a kaichhawng a, chu chu mihringin an lo kai chhawng ve leh ta ni a ngaih a ni a (Parrish et. al. 2015; Dunham et. al. 2016). Indopui laia sipai veivakten he natna hrik hi an pu darh nasa ni a ngaih a ni bawk.
  2. Ebola Virus kha bâk chikhat (fruit bat) aṭanga kai nia ngaih a ni a. Kum 2013-a a lo darh ṭanna hmun nia ngaih Africa khawmualpuia Guinea ram chhimlama Méliandou khua hi ramngawin a hual vel ṭhin ram a ni a. Guinea hian kum 30 chhung emaw zet chu kumtin ramngaw 1% vel zel an hloh a, Méliandou khua phei hi chuan theihmun atan leh oil palm hmun atan an ramngaw za a 80 zet chu an ṭhiat a ramsa leh mihring daidangtu a lo chhiat zel avangin ramsain natna hrik an lo mikhual kha mihringin an lo kai ta a, ramsa tana engmah nilo kha a insiam danglam (mutate) zel a, thihna rapthlak thlentu Ebola hripui a lo ni ta a ni (Dorit, 2015).
  3. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) hi kum 2012 khan Saudi Arabia rama damlo pakhat aṭanga hriatchhuah chauh a ni a, Sanghawngsei aṭanga kai nia hriat a ni (Rasmussen et al. 2015). Sanghawngsei hian mihrhing a kaichhawn hma hian a reilo berah kum 20 emaw chhung tal chu an lo pai reng tawh a ngaih a ni a (Azhar et al. 2014; Meyer et al. 2014), eng aṭangin nge Sanghawngsei hian a kaichhawn a, mihringte tana hlauhawm a lo nih tak tih hi tun thlenga an la chhuichhuah theiloh a ni thung (Salkeld et. al., 2016). Kum 2012 aṭang khan MERS-CoV avang hian mi 858 vel tal an thi tawh a ngaih a ni (WHO).

Ramngaw chereu …Ramsa man/ei … Hripui leng

Heng natna hrik te hi ramhnuaiah, an mikhualna, ramsa taksa chhunga an awm mai mai hian mihringte tan a hlauhawm lem loh. Mahse ramsa te leh mihring te kardangtu ramngaw kan tichereu a, ramsa te nen kan inhnaih tur aiin kan inhnaih ta a; mi ṭhenkhatin ramsa an man a, an khawi a, an ei bawk a, chuvang chuan ramsa aṭanga natna kaichhawn theih (Zoonotics) avangin kan buai kan buai ta a ni ber mai. Heng natna hrik te hi an mikhualna – ramsate tana hlauhawm an ni lem lo, mahse mihringa a luh erawh chuan natna ṭihbaiawm tak a ni thei a, tin, ramsa aṭanga mihring ten direct-a kan kai kher loh pawhin ramsain ranvulhah kaichhawngin chu hrik chu a lo insiam danglam (mutate) a, tichuan mihring ten kan lo tawrh theih phah ta ṭhin a ni.

Covid 19 hi China rama Wuhan-a sa (nung leh nunglo) zawrhna aṭanga darh ṭan nia sawi a ni a, helai dawr hmun hi ramsa nung lai chi hrang hrang an zawrhna hmun nia sawi a ni bawk. Heng ramsate aṭanga kaichhawn hi ni ta bera ngaih theih a ni a, he hri a lo darh tak hnu lawka China sawrkarin ramsa zawrh leh ei a khap tak aṭang hian he thu hi an pawm tih a chiang viau awm e.

Pathianin a thilsiam chitin reng te tan ramri fel takin a duang a, mihringte hian kan ramri kan kân nasa ber a, min hungtu (envelope) pelin ke kan pen (de-envelope) fo ṭhin. Hei hi development (de-envelope/desveloper) ṭawngkam lo chhuahna bul nia ngaih a ni bawk. Hmanlai piputen an buh leh bal vennan vauah thang an kam ṭhin. An ramri pela mihringte thlawhhmaa luh tum ramsa chu an lo awk mai ṭhin. Pasalṭha Neuva pawhin a ramri a pel a, Val-upaten thiangloa an ngaih thlengin a tawnluia, a nunna a chan phah hial. Khuarel ramri (Khuavang ri khamsa nilo!) hi kan kân tikah harsatna leh buaina kan tawng fo ṭhin tih a lang reng mai.

Hriléng pumpelh

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Maryland, USA-a zirmite chuan heng ramsa aṭanga natna kan kaichhawn hi a zual telh telh an rin thu kum 2018 khan American Journal of Public Health-ah an lo puang tawh a (Morens and Taubenberger, 2018), David Quammen-a chuan “Ecosystem kan tihhchiat zel avangin a chhunga virus chi hrang hrang awm te kan ching chhuak mêk a, an chenna hmun kan tihchhiat miau avangin chenna thar, mihringah a rawn zawng ta zel a ni” a ti bawk. Mizo upa te pawhin “kan zun ekthli kan tuar ta love” tiin an chenna khaw hrisello chho zel chu pemsanin khawthar an kaiphah ṭhin bawk.

Tunlai khawvela hriléng te hi a bul ṭanna mai niin zirmite chuan an ngai a, hetiang zela kan chenna khawvel kan enkawl chuan a la hluar chho deuh deuh dawn niin an ngai. Tunlai khawvelah hriléng laka invennana khawthar kai maina tur a awm tawh lova, pemsan ngawt theih a ni lo. Zun, êk thli leh bawlhhlawh enkawl kawnga chet fai piahlam a ngaih zia a lang cho mêk. Natna hrik chi hrang hrangte ramhnuaia an awmna aṭangin va chingchhuak kher lo ila, kan himna kulhpui kan ramri hi kan lo ila, mihring zinga an lo luh ve theihlohna turin an chenna ramngaw humhalh zel ila, natna hrik pu darh theitu ramsa leh sava te man, khawi leh an sa ei sim bawk ila, tichuan hri hlauhawm lakah kan him zawk ang a, hrileng pawh kan pumpelh thei zawk ngei ang.

Thu laknate:

  • Azhar EI, El-Kafrawy SA, Farraj SA, Hassan AM, Al-Saeed MS, Hashem AM, Madani TA. (2014). Evidence for camel-to-human transmission of MERS coronavirus. New England Journal of Medicine 370: 2499–2505.
  • Dorit, R (2015). Breached Ecological Barriers and the Ebola Outbreak. American Scientist. 103(4):256.
  • Dunham, E.J., Dugan, V.G., Kaser, E.K., et al. (2009). Different evolutionary trajectories of European avian-like and classical swine H1N1 influenza A viruses. J Virol. 83(11):5485 – 5494.
  • Meyer B, et al. (2014). Antibodies against MERS coronavirus in dromedaries, United Arab Emirates, 2003 and 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases 20: 552–559.
  • Morens, D.M. and Taubenberger, J.K. (2018). The Mother of All Pandemics Is 100 Years Old (and Going Strong)! American Journal of Public Health. 108(11): 1449 – 1454.
  • Parrish, C.R., Murcia, P.R. and Holmes, E.C. (2015). Influenza virus reservoirs and intermediate hosts: dogs, horses, and new possibilities for influenza virus exposure of humans. J Virol. 89(6):2990 – 2994.
  • Salkeld, D.J., Stapp, P., Tripp, D.W., Gage, K.L., Lowell, J., Webb, C.T., Brinkerhoff, R.J. and Antolin, M.F. (2016). Outbreaks and Emergence of Zoonotic Pathogens. BioScience 66: 118–129.

Defragmenting The Dampa Tiger Reserve: The Andermanik Frontier

September, ten years ago, we were assigned to conduct an Environmental Impact Assessment of the proposed Indo-Bangla Border Road Fencing which transect through the Dampa Tiger Reserve (DTR). After a month preparation, we packed our gears and head to Teirei Rest House. Our team comprised of our PI, Mr Laltlanhlua Zathang, ACF, Mr. B. Malsawmkima (B-a), Ms Laldinthari (Madini) and I. At Teirei, we were joined by Wildlife Guards of the Teirei Range.

Fully packed motor-boat, in the middle is our boss, Pu Tlana. The availability of the motor-boat service in this region depended upon the level of water in the Khawthlang tuipui.

We were divided into three groups, I was the leader of team 1, who stationed at Sailui. Both team 2 and 3 were stationed at Andermanik Anti-Poaching Camp, they were led by Mr B-a and Ms Madini, respectively. Our mission was to conduct a vegetation analysis along the proposed transect of the Indo-Bangla Border Road fencing.

Mr. B-a and Ms. Madini

From Rajiv Nagar, we rode a motor-boat till the Sailui Junction, where my team would camped, the other teams sailed till the Andermanik village. We fortunately spotted a Jhum hut, which relieved us from constructing a shelter. We stayed at Sailui for two nights; we cooked our own food, slept on our own beddings, hence, we didn’t bother our host, the owner of the jhum hut 😁. Our camping site was outside the DTR core area, hence anthropological activities were not prohibited.

Ms Madini and the bridge on the River Khawthlang Tuipui

Andermanik Village ~14 Km from Sailui was, however, within the core area and was about to be relocated, negotiations were going on, then. After completing our task along the Sailui-Andermanik transect, we decided to join our friends at the Andermanik Anti-Poaching camp. Instead of taking the normal path, we decided to walk down the Gundasuri stream, that drains to the Khawthlang tuipui. Our porter, whom I fondly called “Bondu” led the way, he cut the bushes and cleared the path. As we move down the stream, I could spot several pug-marks. Undoubtedly it was one of the natural wildlife corridor. The plan was to reach Andermanik by means of a raft.

In the midst of the Jungle, we encountered these jubilant kids, they swam the whole afternoon. @Sailui
Our host at Sailui
Our team and the kids in the Jungle @Sailui
Our host winnowing the paddy. While her husband was working elsewhere, she was looking after their Jhum field and their kids.
Suron, the obedient boy @Sailui. He was always ready to strike a pose 😀
Suron…among the ripened paddy
My Team at rest…Somewhere between the Sailui and the Andermanik Village
My Men…at the mouth of the Gundasuri stream that we transect
Busy Bondu, the engineer, constructing a bamboo raft

Bondu was the engineer, Pu Samuel-a and Mapuia helped him in collecting the bamboo. I could overheared them saying “rawṭhing chu sât suh, a láng ṭha duhlo…” After completion, we tried once, and found that the raft could not bear our weight, we need to cut more bamboos. During the process, a gentleman from Andermanik was solo-rafting, without much belongings. We hitchhiked him; I rode on his raft, and the other three rode on the raft that we built. After 2 hours of rafting along the Khawthlang tuipui, we finally landed at Andermanik, it was already dark.

A gentleman from Andermanik, whom we hitchhiked
Captain Bondu and crew…rafting the Khawthlang tuipui
My captain! He was swiftly paddling the raft. The bamboo culm he hold would not be shorter than 18 ft, which he frequently dipped, as if he was trying to measure the depth of the river. He didn’t realised that his dipping and retracting of the bamboo-paddle horrified his mate, who couldn’t swim! And that dipping and retracting told how deep the river was!
After a few hours, he suddenly shouted, “Gui…gui” which left me confused. Later on, I realised that he was spotting a Tuipuisatang (Water Monitor Lizard – Varanus salvator) at a distant shore! To him, it was a nutrition that perish!
A Selfie! lewll
It was dark, when we arrived at Andermanik. These two youths left, as we landed.
Inside the Anti-Poaching Camp, Andermanik…Bondu, Tlangaupa and Pu Muankima.
They were all surprised to see us at the camp. Since there was no mobile phone signals, and we were also void of radio, we couldn’t inform them.
Reuniting with my comrade @Andermanik

We stayed at Andermanik for a night and the next day, we left for Rajiv Nagar, by foot. It took us around 4 hrs to cover ~ 16.41 Km of steep and slippery paths, up and down the gorges. Knowing the consequences and the biodiversity threats that was awaiting, we proposed that if at all the border had to be fenced, it should be done at the zero boundary, not even an inch inside the Tiger Reserve. Wildlife corridors should be reserved as plenty and wide as possible. We did the best we could. After all it was our first assignment since leaving the university, two months back! When we were approached for this project, our result was not even declared! But we were energetic and dedicated, we were satisfied with our efforts, since we gave our best.

Inside the Andermanik, the Village that fragmented

Prior to its relocation, Andermanik was the only village inside the core area of the DTR. There were 200 houses, 3 primary schools, six grocery shops and a BSF Duty post. Like other Chakma community, their main religion was Buddhism and solely dependent on Jhumming for their sustenance.

A Chakma family
It was very rare to see people fetching water with a plastic container in this part of the land.
The Chakma way of fetching water
A motherly care
The Andermanik playground
Public urinal… It is a common thing in Mizoram
Mother and Child…and a cat
Power supply was not available. Some villagers harnessed the solar energy and watched a television.
A busy mother at work
Harvesting the Nawinâwk (Basella alba) leaves. They gave us some few, tried and tested, excess amount of Dangpuithu (Sidol) spoil the menu.
Communication was a problem. Since they could speak their own dialect only.
A country made daba smoker
“Pinon” in the making
A Chakma boy wearing a traditional Teng-chara
Protector of the Forest…Strike Forces and Wildlife Guards…and Bondu, my friend.
A view from the Anti-Poaching camp. In 2012, I met Pu Samuela, and he told me that Andermanik Village was relocated and those places like this were transformed into a playground of the fauna, the floral community dominated the landscape and transformed into a fawning and a stotting place for the quadrupeds.
Us

We tried our best not to imposed habitat fragmentation, but it was beyond our power whether the fencing should or should not be constructed. We were told, “It’s a matter of national security.” Though the Andermanik Village that fragmented the reserve was relocated, how would a fencing and a motorable patrolling path not fragmented the Tiger Reserve?

[Powered by Canon 1000D with 18 – 55mm IS USM]