Bamboo Now

Vawiin, September 18 hi World Bamboo Day a ni a, kumdang ang chu nise khawvel ram hrang hrangah, he ni denchhen hian, Mau-rua awmna leh awmlohnaah pawh eng eng emaw an huaihawt leh ngei ang.
Mizorama Bamboo Day liantham taka kan hman hnuhnun ber kha 2018 kha a ni a, khami denchhen khan a lawmna chi hrang hrang – technical session te, mau-rua hmanga thil siamchhuak ten an kutchhuak hmangin exhibition an nei a…fashion show emawni kha a lar ta ber lawi a, chanchinthar lamah pawh hmun a chang tam ta ber zawk awm e.

Mautak hmunah – Sawmkima

Kumina World Bamboo Day thupui chu ‘Bamboo now‘ tih a ni a, Mau-rua hmanga ei leh bara intodelh te, khawvel boruak chhe zel siam ṭhat te hi an thu ken laipui ber a ni. A bik takin ram rethei (developing countries) leh khawpui pawna awm (rural communities) te tan phei chuan intodelhna hnar, eizawnna tling a nih theih dan te, khawvel boruak chhe mêk tiziaawm tura mau leh raw ṭangkaina lam te hi mithiamte rilru sen nasatna a ni ta.

Mizopa dap chik

Mizoram hian mau lam chi kan ngah hle mai a, kan mau neih tam zawk erawh a nawlpui chuan kan hmang ṭangkai chiam lo a, mautak, rawnal, rawṭhing leh phulrua te hi kan hmang uarin kan hmang nasa hle a; Mizorama mau leh raw lam chia a tam ber pawh an ni bawk. Kut themthiam deuh te chuan rawngal te, sairil te pawh ṭangkai takin an hmang thung lawi a.

Lemziak mual mawng lama rawnal hung

Mau hmanna hi a tam a, kan hman duh dan a zirin mau chi hrang hman tlak lehzual deuh bik te pawh a awm awm e. China ho chuan an mau chhuanvawr, Moso hmanna tur hrang hrang an duang a, chumi mil chuan Moso sawngbawlna tur khawl an siam mai bawk a. Keini erawhin hachhek leh chempui piahlam chu kan la siamchhuak hleitheilo a, themthiam leh remhre zual ṭhenkhat ten Bamboo vinegar ur chhuahna khawl te, mau-meihawl rawhna te, mau phelsinna te an duangchhuak ve mêk bawk a.

Mau-meihawl, Mizopa siam

Mau hman ṭangkaina hria tam zawk chuan khawvel ramdanga mau an hman ṭangkai dan a bikin, furniture siamnana hman an sawi mawi a, chuvang chuan Mizorama mau kan neihsa te hi laktlakloh niin an hria a. Mi ṭhenkhat thung chuan Bamboo composite board (Mau – thingzai leh board/matply) siam te an sawi mawi a, matply industry kan nei reng a, Mizorama mau leh raw tualṭo hmangin Bamboo matply an siamchhuak reng tawh zawk tih an hre lo ni maw, ramdang mau hmang chauha siam theih niawm thawthanga sawiin Mizorama mau leh rua te hi tihtlakloh chhuahin an chhuah ve bawk a.

Mizote hian chemfawng atan raw zung/bul (rhizome) kan hmang nasa hle

Mizorama mau tualṭo chi hrang 20 chuang kan neihte zingah mautak hi a tam lawt laka, he mautak hi lehkhapuan ṭha chi siamna atana hmanraw ṭha bik a nih zia kan sawi tel hram teh ang. Lehkhapuan siamchhuahna tura chakkhai ṭha ber te zinga mi kan ngah teh lul nen a lam kan la hawi hleitheilo a. Hetilam sawi thawm a rik apiangin a hre ril deuh ten Panchgram-a paper mill (Cachar Paper mill) an tlakchhiat thu an lo sawi ve var zel bawk a. Anni an tlakchhiat avanga keini kan lo tim ve ringawt lai hi hriatthiam a har viau. Eirukna a nasat vanga tlachhia niten an sawi…eiru ve nghal turah an Mizo puite min ngai a nih loh vek pawhin eiruk ve an tum a nianga tih ngaihtuah mai a awl viau.

Bamboo Activated Charcoal powder Mizopa siam

Mizorama mau te ṭangkai lehzuala kan hman a, ei leh bara intodelh theihnana hmang tur chuan tun aia nasa zawka kan zirchian a ṭul. A vawnṭhat dan ṭha zawk leh man man zawk te, a tuai khawrh dan mumal leh sawngbawl dan ṭha zawk te, a tisa chhung ril awm dan leh nihphung te chena zirchian a ngai awm e. Heng hriatna hmang te hian eng atan nge hmang ila ṭha ber ang a, eng atana hmanin nge ramin a hlawkpui ber ang? tih te pawh a chhut chhuah theih awm e.

Ei leh bara Mizoram kan intodelh theihna tura kan vawkpa sut nghak, Pathianin kan rama a dah sa kan mau leh rua te hi kan ser ve a hun ta e. Bamboo Now!

Mau leh raw kaihhnawih article dang chiar duh tan:
http://bambusapiens.com/raw-chi-tha-bihchianna/
http://bambusapiens.com/mau-mawlsawmna/

WHY EXOTIC?

“Mizoṭawng chanchinbua Mizoṭawnga thuziak ve si ṭawng danga thupui dah kher, Mizoṭawng a hman theih lo em ni…?” tih thinlung I pu maithei. Ni, Mizorama thing leh thlai, mau leh rua te hi khawvel huap pawha zahpuiawmloh an ni chunga ramdang thing leh thlai, mau leh rua ten ngaihsan leh ngaihhlut an hlawh zel a, thlan an nih zawk zel dan hi han ngaihtuah ve mah teh? He Article thupui-a sapṭawng hi i ngaimawh chuan Mizoram dinchhuahna tur nia an sawi, ramdang thilte hi i ngaimawh ve tho dawn lo’m ni?

Mizoram hi thlai engkim ṭhat duhna niin mi tam takin an sawi ṭhin a, a dik thui viau maithei, ṭha duh hauh lo pawh a awm ve ngei tho awm e. Ei leh bara kan intodelh theih dan tur hi kan sorkar hotute ngaihtuah ber leh vei ber a ni a, mipuite pawhin chumi tithlawhtling tura an hmathlir a zirin kan thlang tling ṭhin ni pawhin a lang bawk. Hmalakna tur hrang hrang kan duan zingah hian kan rama awmsa hman ṭangkai lam ai chuan hmundanga mi chaw lut tur zawnga hmathlir hi a tam ber zel niin a lang bawk, a bikin thlai leh ran vulh/khawi chi hoah hian a hluar zual. Heng hi a ṭha ber em? Kan hlawhtlin pui reng em? tih hian chhuizui leh ngaihven zui a hlawh lem lo viau bawk niin a lang.

Exotic chu eng nge?
Exotic tih hi ecology ṭawngkamah chuan mikhual sawina a ni a; tualṭo ni lo, hmun danga mi lak luh sawina a ni. Tualṭo ni lo, ramdang a mi lak luh hian a awmna tharah nghawng chi hrang hrang a neih theih avangin biodiversity leh ecology lama zirmite chuan an duh lo hle. Nghawng a neih dan erawh a inchen vek lo a, enkawl zawh loh khawp hial a nghawng nei thei te, nghawng na lutuk lem lo te pawh a awm bawk.

Mizoramah hian intodelhna tur project lian tham a awm apianga langsar nghal êm êm zel chu ramdang a mi – thlai, thing leh thei chi lak luh hi a ni a. Khawii ramah emaw an hlawhtlinpui zia thu leh a man a to zia te, miin an duh zia te, a ṭhat duh zia te hi nasa takin an tlangaupui ṭhin a, ei leh bara kan intodelh theihna tur kawng awlsam ber niin kan ngai tlangpui zel bawk. Kawng awlsam hi kan zawng lutuk zawk a ni mai angem? Hybrid species emaw tissue culture hmanga siam an nih vang emaw hian kan ngaisang viau zel a, Mizorama tualṭo te ai hian kan dah sanga, hlawhtlin pui theih zawkah kan ngai niin a lang. Chumi piah lamah chuan a chi leh a ṭiak supply te pawh hi a hlawk viau maithei bawk!

Exotic species tena Mizoram Agro-ecosystem a nghawng theih dan te hi chu kan hotute hian an ngaihtuah thleng vek turah ngai ila. Tin, thlai chi kan lakluh te hi Mizoram sik leh sa, leilung mil tura duan a ni em? tih te pawh an ngaihtuah tel vek turah ngai bawk ang. Ram danga a ṭhat duh avangin kan ramah a ṭha duh ve kher angem? tih te pawh an enchhin hmasa vek turah ngai ila. International market-a a man te pawh an chhut hmasain an zir chiang vek bawk-ah ngai ila, chumi market-a pho chhuah theih dan tur te nen lam an ngaihtuah vek turah ngai ang.

Exotic species leh a mikhualna ram
Exotic species te hian an awmna thar hi an ngeih vek kher lo a, an ṭha tak tak vek kherlo a, a ṭhan a muanga, rah seng tur mumal a awm lo fo. Hetiang hi a tuartu ber chu a enkawltu, huan neitute an ni ṭhin. A hralhna kawng a bo êm avanga mipui te tawrhna leh beidawnna thlentu tam zawk pawh hi exotic species te bawk hi a ni. Hralhna awmsa tura ngaih tam tak hi kan chin pun veleh hian beisei aiin a hralhna lam hi a kawngbo leh riau ṭhin niin a lang. Kan zirchiang tawk lo nge ni anga, kan chin pun chhungin an lo duh leh lo thut?

Ṭhenkhat ve thung erawh chuan an ngeih leh lutuka, hnim leh thlai tualṭo, sa leh sangha awm sa te pawh tibuai vek khawpin an pung chak thung. Chutiang chu Mizoramah pawh hmuh tur a awm nual mai – Japan hlo, Shillong Tlangsam (Lantana camara – Shillong par, Par arsi, Lalmawia hling par ti tein an sawi bawk) leh Bihar hlo/Hlo thar (Ageratina spp) te hi a hnawksak langsar zual a ni awm e. Palak dila sangha awm sa te aia tha zawka an ngaih avanga sangha chi khat, khawvel pawhin top 100 invasive alien-species a a puan hial, Tilapia avangin sangha chi awmsa te a mang ti tih ta der mai. Kan Mizo pangpar, Mizo chanchin leh thawnthu a hmun pawimawh tak luahtu te chu hmuh tur a vang tawh hle.

Pathian thil siam dan hi a ropuiin a mak a, a ruahmanna hi a felfai khawp mai. Thil nung chitin tan ramri a kham, an awmna tur chin te, an awm lohna tur chin te fel takin a duang a, mihring te hian chu ramri chu kan zah thiam a pawimawh tak zet a ni. Sik leh sa, leilung awm dan te hi Pathianin thilnung te tana ramri a kham chu a ni a. Leilung, sik leh sa leh thlai ṭo te hi a inkungkaih tlata, thing leh thlai ṭo a zirin nungcha chi hrang hrang a awm ve leh ṭhin. Mizo upa te chuan lo atan pawh rampui chang ṭha an duh deuh kher ṭhin a, a lei a that vang a ni. Lei a ṭhatna chhan kha thing hnah leh ṭang leh a zar tla, tawih ralin leiṭha a siam vang a ni a, chu chu ecology ṭawngkamah chuan nutrient cycle an ti a, he cycle hmang hian thlai hian an awmna hmun a colonized ṭhin. Chu hmanrua tho chu exotic species kan tih te pawh hian rawn hmang vein thlai leh thing awmsa te a dip ral mai ṭhin. Chu chuan leiṭha siamtu soil microbe te, ramsa leh nungcha dang thlengin a nghawng ṭhin.

Mizorama Exotic Species lar zualte
Tun ṭumah chuan ramdang thing leh thlai, rua leh mau tam tak zingah thingchang thlai, thlai kumhlun leh rua leh mau, Sorkar Policy hrang hrangte avanga kan chawkluhte kan thlur bik ang.

Eucalyptus:
Ecucalyptus spp. hi Mizo chuan “Nawhalh thing” tiin kan sawi mai ṭhin a. India rama Commercial Agroforestry plantation-ah chuan an hlawhtlin pui ber pakhat a ni. Amaerawhchu tuihna (Water table) a tihbuai nasat avangin state tam zawkah chuan an ma leh thuai a, hmun tlemteah chauh chin chhunzawm a ni. Mizoramah pawh 1976 – 77 hnu lam khan uar taka chin a ni a, amaherawhchu hlawhtling taka enkawl erawh a tam lo niin a lang. Kung lianpui pui erawh khawi khawiah emaw hmuh tur a la awm nual.

Teak:
Tunhma chuan Teak (Tectona grandis) hi Forest Department plantation-ah chin a ni ber ṭhin a, mimal huanah chuan phun a ni meuh lo. Kum 1985 – 87 chho aṭangin Sorkar policy (Land Use Policy) avangin mimal tan pawh Teak huan neih a lo theih ta a, Mizorama plantation lian leh tam ber hi Teak plantation a lo ni ta a ni. Mizo pa ti ti-ah chuan Teak huanah ramsa an tla duh lo, a kungah eng sava mah an fu duhlo tih a ni ṭhin. Hei hi a chhan ber nia lang chu Teak rah leh hnah te hi nungchate tana chhenfakawm a awm loh vang a ni. Tin, Teak hian bawmtu hrik chi hnih a nei nain chung hrik (Defoliator leh Skeletoniser) te chu Mizoramah hian a la awm mumalloh avangin a eitu tur sava pawh a la awm lo niin a lang. Chutih rual erawh chuan Teak zara sava fu hi hmuh tur a awm fo mai. Teak-in leilung a nghawng dan hi kan ram tana a ṭhatlohna lian ber chu a ni zawk awm e.

Teak-in leilung a nghawng dan hi kan ram tana a ṭhatlohna lian ber chu a ni zawk awm e.

Tung:
Tung (Aleurites fordii) hi NLUP hnuaiah kum 1991 hnulam aṭangin nasa taka chin a ni a, a hriak hralhna ṭha tak awm ni a sawi a ni. Kum 2018-a Mizorama Tung plantation chungchang zawtchiang tura a buaipuitu Department lama ka kal chuan a project zawhna a rei tawh avangin data min pek tur an neihloh thuin min lo chhang a. A hlawhtling lo hle tihna ni berin a lang.

Jatropha:
Kang damdawi (Jatropha curcas) buaipuina tur hian Mizoram Sorkar leh Godrej Company te chuan Crore 250 zet senna tur inremna an siam a, Mizoram Intodelhna Project (MIP) kaltlanga thawh tur a ni. A hunlai chuan khawi khawiah emaw hmuh tur a awm a, tunah erawh a vang leh ta viau mai. Bio-diesel siamchhuahna tham kan thar ta lo nge, a hnu leha sorkar ten an ngaihsak zuilo?

Red Oil Palm:
Oil Palm tia kan hriat lar, Red Oil Palm hi kum 2005 aṭanga buaipui ṭan a ni a. Mizorama Sorkarna fung chelhtu hmasa hmalakna, ministry tharin tihtakzeta a chhawm nun awmchhun a ni mai awm e. Ministry pahnih ngawtin an buaipui a ni bawk a, a chingtu an tamin Company pathum ngawtin min thutchilh ren rawn a. A chingtute tan hamṭhatna leh ṭanpuina hrang hrang an pe nasa bawk a, khaw tin deuhthawhah oil palm hmun hmuh tur a awm. Hun a kal deuh a, a buaipuitu company lam pawh a tahtawlin an inhnukdawk a. Kumin chhoah phei chuan oil palm huan neitu ten a kung an kit a, a hmun an ṭhiat leh ṭan ta! Hmun ṭhenkhatah phei chuan JCB te hial ruaiin a zung nen lama phoro turin an pawt phawi leh ta. A chi an sem tirha hralhna tur an hriat te khan an duh leh ta lo nge, Mizoramin kan thar hi a quality a hniam fal deuh? Nge nia kan tharchhuahna leh phurhchhuahna man a san avangin a hriak man a to phaha, hralhna turah kan hnawng? Zawhna a tam thei khawp mai. Environment tana a ṭhat tawkloh dan leh tuihna eikangtu a nih dan te pawh ziak a tam hle chunga buaipui kan nih erawh hre reng ila.

Raw chi hrang hrang:
Mautam chhawmdawlna BAFFACOS sum hmangin raw chi hrang hrang Mizoramah lakluh a ni a, 2010 thleng khan chi 11 zet lakluh a ni. Chu’ng zingah chuan Bambusa bambos an tih, Mizoin “Rawhling” tia kan lo vuah ve tak, mi ṭhenkhat ten kan ram hruaitu hming chawia a hming an lo vuah ve bawk hi a lar ber te zinga mi a ni awm e. Heng bakah hian Maudâng (Schizostachyum pergacile), Moso (Phyllostachys edulis), Bambusa balcooa, B. vulgaris vittata, B. vulgaris waminii, B. multiplex, Dendrocalamus asper, D. giganteus (Vai-rawpui), D. latiflorus leh P. mannii te hi mumal taka chhinchhiah chin an ni. Kum 2010-a NBM hnuaia plantation kan endikna hmun hrang hrangah Vairam aṭanga lakluh Rawṭhing leh Phulraw ṭiak an dawn nasat thu an lo sawi bawk.

Bambusa bambos… Rawhling

Heng Sorkar Policy hrang hrang avanga ramdang thing leh mau/rua leh kan lakluh te hi uluk takin chhut ta ila, a hlawhtlinna hmuh tur a tam lo hle a, Policy an kalpui tirha an hmathlir ang kha nise chuan raltiang ram kan thlen loh vek pawhin kan hmu pha vuai vuai tawhin a rinawm. Mipui thiamloh tam tak a awm ang a, Department lam tihfuh tawkloh pawh tam tak a awm ang. Thil pakhat chiang êm êm mai erawh chu heng ramdang thing leh mau kan lakluh te hian Mizoram hi a ngeih teh chiamlo tih hi a ni.

Tunah hian raw chi hnih kan buaipui leh ṭan mek a, chu’ng zinga pakhat zawk (D. latiflorus) phei chu BAFFACOS hunlaia Mizoram lakluh tawh a ni a, a chi dang – D. brandisii erawh Mizorama a luh hun chhinchhiah fel a awm lo thung. Heng raw chi hnih, a ṭualona hmuna ṭha tak tak mai, te hian Mizoram an ngeih angem? tih hi sawilawk thiam a harsa hle mai a, chutiang bawkin engtiangin nge an mikhualna ram hi a nghawng ang? tih hi ngaihruat thiam harsa tak a ni bawk. Tin, a tualṭona rama an hman dan leh an sawngbawl dan ngaihtuah hian khawvel ramdanga hralh tla tak ni tura sawngbawl chiam chi a ni angem? tih hriatthiam a har viau bawk. A hralhna tur awmsa thlap leh a hlawkzia hre sa chunga kan chin, kan hlawhchham pui tak te en chuan a hmanna tur leh a hralhna tur pawh kan la hriatloh han phurpui viau hi chu thil harsa tak a ni a, lo helh viau pawh hi a awm hle. Mau leh raw kaihhnawih industry lian tena an hman ṭangkai leh an duh zinga tello, India rama mau chin pun tura an thlan zingah pawha tel bawk silo an ni ve ve hi ngaihngam taka hmalak ti hartu a ni a. India ram state dang ten an uar vakloh, Sorkar laipui pawhin a la ngaihvenloh chi hnih hi kan risk fuh hlauh erawh chuan midangte tihhmuhtu kan ni thei ngeiin a rinawm. Heng Raw chi hnih bihchianna hi July 23, 2019 khan Vanglaini chanchinbuah tihchhuah tawh a ni a (hetah hian en theih a ni bawk http://bambusapiens.com/raw-chi-tha-bihchianna/), kan sawi chhunzawm tawh lovang. (Mau leh raw chungchang article dang hetah hian chhiar theih a ni bawk: www.bambusapiens.com/mau-mawlsawmna/)

Tlangkawmna
Mizoram thilte ngaisang tura kan infuih a, Mizoṭawng ngei pawh Kohhran meuhin hmang uar tura hma a lak mup mup laia Exotic species – ram dang thlai kan la ngaisang zawk a, chumi zara dinchhuah theih kan la inbeisei tlat leh intodelh theihna tur Policy-in chumi lam hlir a la hawi zel mai hi a lungchhiat thlak tak zet a ni. Kan rama awmsa, kan ram sik leh sa, leh leilung ngeih sa te tharhlawk zawka tharchhuah dan te, man man zawka hralhchhuah theih dan te ngaihtuah lova a bul atanga engkim zir thara, buaipui chawp a, bul ṭan ṭhat ngai thing leh thlai kan phurpuia kan ngaisang zawk tlat zel hi siamtu zahlohna lian tak, mahni ram leh hnam ngaihnêpna te pawh a ni hialin ka ring. Why Exotic?

[He article hi VANGLAINI (Mizo Daily)-ah July 3, 2020 khan tihchhuah a ni]

Hripui – Mihringte cho chhuah…?

Khawiah emaw hri a leng fo thin. Hri a len hian han chhui han chhui ila mihringte vang a ni tlangpui thin. Heng hrileng te hi thilsiam tinreng te a lo inbuk tawk leh theihna tura Khuanu remruat a ni…

Khawvelah hian hri a leng fo a, a ṭhen chu hmun zimteah a leng a (endemic), a ṭhen chu hmun zau zawkah (epidemic), a ṭhen erawhin khawvel pum a huap thung (pandemic). Mizoramah pawh hrileng kan tuar ve fo a, 1918 bawr vela “influenza” kha kan tawrh nat ber a ni mai awm e. Khaw ṭhenkhata Zawnghri leng kha an tuar viau bawk. Hri hi engvanga leng ṭhin nge ni ang tih hi zawhna lian tak a ni ang. Chhan hrang hrang a awmin a rinawm. Mi ṭhenkhat chuan ram engemawin ralthuam (Bio-weapon) atana an siam a nih an ring a, ramsa aṭanga kan kai chhawn ni a ngai an awm bawk. Tun ṭumah hian Ecology tarmitin kan thlir dawn a ni.

Khuarel thilthleng – Mihring vang

Khawvela thil thleng tam tak, “khuarel thilthleng” kan tih te hi khawvela chengten kan chenna kan enkawl danin a nghawngchhuah tam tak a awm a, mawhphurtu lianber te chu mihringte kan ni. Chu’ng khuarel chhiatna zingah chuan tuilian te, leimin te, thlipui te pawh a tel thei ang – In kan sak dan phung te, kawlphetha siamchhuahna tura tuikhuah avang te, boruak chhia kan tihchhuah nasat avang tea lo hluar ta an ni. Chutiang zelin khawvel sik leh sa danglam chak lutuk dan te, awmna hri te, dengue te leh khawṭhalo hri leng fote pawh hi mihringte khawsak dan phungin a tih hluar chhoh an ni ber mai.

Pathianin khawvel a duan danah hian thil engkim mai hi inbuk tawk leh inkamki tawkin, inmamawh tawnin a siam a, chu inbuktawn chu a lo danglam hlek hian harsatna eng eng emaw a lo piang ṭhin. Chung zinga pakhat chu hrileng hi ni ngeiin a lang. Hri hi mihring te chungah lo pawh a leng fo a, tun hnaiah pawh vawk pul hri te, arpul hri te, Saza hri te a leng a. Mihringte zingah pawh Ebola te, SARS te, Swine flu te, Avian flu te bakah nantna hri chi hrang hrang a leng ṭhin a, Covid 19 (SARS CoV-2) a leng leh mêk bawk. Heng zawng zawng hi a chhan dik tak hrelo mah ila, Ecological imbalance vang a ni thui hle tih a hriat theih.

Hripui léng tawh ṭhenkhat – Ecology tarmit aṭangin

  1. 1918-a Spanish flu, mi maktaduai 10 chuangin an thihpui, Mizote pawhin Influenza tia kan lo hriat leh kan lo tawrh ve pawh kha tui-sava aṭanga kaichhawna ngaih a ni a, kha hripui kha “Mother of all pandemics” (Morens and Taubenberger, 2018) an ti hial a. Khami a chinah khan a khat tawkin awmna hri (infuenza) hi khawvelah a leng renga ngaih a ni. Kha hripui kha Spain aṭanga darh nia ngaih a nih avanga Spanish flu tih a ni nain khatiang taka a darh a, hriatchhuah a nih hma khan vei engemaw zat an awm tawhin an ring a, kum 1917 khan a darh tawhah an ngai hial. A lo chhuahna bul tak pawh hi rindan chi hrang hrang a awm a, France a nih ring te, China a nih ring te, Britain a nih ring te pawh an awm bawk. Indopui pakhatna hunlai a ni a, Ecological crisis nasat vanglai tak a ni bawk. Indopui lai a nih avangin sipai raldote chu hmun chep tak takah an inêkbeng a, an eitur vawk leh sava lam chi – ar, vatawk adt. an vulh bawk. Tui-sava aṭangin vawkin a kaichhawng a, chu chu mihringin an lo kai chhawng ve leh ta ni a ngaih a ni a (Parrish et. al. 2015; Dunham et. al. 2016). Indopui laia sipai veivakten he natna hrik hi an pu darh nasa ni a ngaih a ni bawk.
  2. Ebola Virus kha bâk chikhat (fruit bat) aṭanga kai nia ngaih a ni a. Kum 2013-a a lo darh ṭanna hmun nia ngaih Africa khawmualpuia Guinea ram chhimlama Méliandou khua hi ramngawin a hual vel ṭhin ram a ni a. Guinea hian kum 30 chhung emaw zet chu kumtin ramngaw 1% vel zel an hloh a, Méliandou khua phei hi chuan theihmun atan leh oil palm hmun atan an ramngaw za a 80 zet chu an ṭhiat a ramsa leh mihring daidangtu a lo chhiat zel avangin ramsain natna hrik an lo mikhual kha mihringin an lo kai ta a, ramsa tana engmah nilo kha a insiam danglam (mutate) zel a, thihna rapthlak thlentu Ebola hripui a lo ni ta a ni (Dorit, 2015).
  3. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) hi kum 2012 khan Saudi Arabia rama damlo pakhat aṭanga hriatchhuah chauh a ni a, Sanghawngsei aṭanga kai nia hriat a ni (Rasmussen et al. 2015). Sanghawngsei hian mihrhing a kaichhawn hma hian a reilo berah kum 20 emaw chhung tal chu an lo pai reng tawh a ngaih a ni a (Azhar et al. 2014; Meyer et al. 2014), eng aṭangin nge Sanghawngsei hian a kaichhawn a, mihringte tana hlauhawm a lo nih tak tih hi tun thlenga an la chhuichhuah theiloh a ni thung (Salkeld et. al., 2016). Kum 2012 aṭang khan MERS-CoV avang hian mi 858 vel tal an thi tawh a ngaih a ni (WHO).

Ramngaw chereu …Ramsa man/ei … Hripui leng

Heng natna hrik te hi ramhnuaiah, an mikhualna, ramsa taksa chhunga an awm mai mai hian mihringte tan a hlauhawm lem loh. Mahse ramsa te leh mihring te kardangtu ramngaw kan tichereu a, ramsa te nen kan inhnaih tur aiin kan inhnaih ta a; mi ṭhenkhatin ramsa an man a, an khawi a, an ei bawk a, chuvang chuan ramsa aṭanga natna kaichhawn theih (Zoonotics) avangin kan buai kan buai ta a ni ber mai. Heng natna hrik te hi an mikhualna – ramsate tana hlauhawm an ni lem lo, mahse mihringa a luh erawh chuan natna ṭihbaiawm tak a ni thei a, tin, ramsa aṭanga mihring ten direct-a kan kai kher loh pawhin ramsain ranvulhah kaichhawngin chu hrik chu a lo insiam danglam (mutate) a, tichuan mihring ten kan lo tawrh theih phah ta ṭhin a ni.

Covid 19 hi China rama Wuhan-a sa (nung leh nunglo) zawrhna aṭanga darh ṭan nia sawi a ni a, helai dawr hmun hi ramsa nung lai chi hrang hrang an zawrhna hmun nia sawi a ni bawk. Heng ramsate aṭanga kaichhawn hi ni ta bera ngaih theih a ni a, he hri a lo darh tak hnu lawka China sawrkarin ramsa zawrh leh ei a khap tak aṭang hian he thu hi an pawm tih a chiang viau awm e.

Pathianin a thilsiam chitin reng te tan ramri fel takin a duang a, mihringte hian kan ramri kan kân nasa ber a, min hungtu (envelope) pelin ke kan pen (de-envelope) fo ṭhin. Hei hi development (de-envelope/desveloper) ṭawngkam lo chhuahna bul nia ngaih a ni bawk. Hmanlai piputen an buh leh bal vennan vauah thang an kam ṭhin. An ramri pela mihringte thlawhhmaa luh tum ramsa chu an lo awk mai ṭhin. Pasalṭha Neuva pawhin a ramri a pel a, Val-upaten thiangloa an ngaih thlengin a tawnluia, a nunna a chan phah hial. Khuarel ramri (Khuavang ri khamsa nilo!) hi kan kân tikah harsatna leh buaina kan tawng fo ṭhin tih a lang reng mai.

Hriléng pumpelh

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Maryland, USA-a zirmite chuan heng ramsa aṭanga natna kan kaichhawn hi a zual telh telh an rin thu kum 2018 khan American Journal of Public Health-ah an lo puang tawh a (Morens and Taubenberger, 2018), David Quammen-a chuan “Ecosystem kan tihhchiat zel avangin a chhunga virus chi hrang hrang awm te kan ching chhuak mêk a, an chenna hmun kan tihchhiat miau avangin chenna thar, mihringah a rawn zawng ta zel a ni” a ti bawk. Mizo upa te pawhin “kan zun ekthli kan tuar ta love” tiin an chenna khaw hrisello chho zel chu pemsanin khawthar an kaiphah ṭhin bawk.

Tunlai khawvela hriléng te hi a bul ṭanna mai niin zirmite chuan an ngai a, hetiang zela kan chenna khawvel kan enkawl chuan a la hluar chho deuh deuh dawn niin an ngai. Tunlai khawvelah hriléng laka invennana khawthar kai maina tur a awm tawh lova, pemsan ngawt theih a ni lo. Zun, êk thli leh bawlhhlawh enkawl kawnga chet fai piahlam a ngaih zia a lang cho mêk. Natna hrik chi hrang hrangte ramhnuaia an awmna aṭangin va chingchhuak kher lo ila, kan himna kulhpui kan ramri hi kan lo ila, mihring zinga an lo luh ve theihlohna turin an chenna ramngaw humhalh zel ila, natna hrik pu darh theitu ramsa leh sava te man, khawi leh an sa ei sim bawk ila, tichuan hri hlauhawm lakah kan him zawk ang a, hrileng pawh kan pumpelh thei zawk ngei ang.

Thu laknate:

  • Azhar EI, El-Kafrawy SA, Farraj SA, Hassan AM, Al-Saeed MS, Hashem AM, Madani TA. (2014). Evidence for camel-to-human transmission of MERS coronavirus. New England Journal of Medicine 370: 2499–2505.
  • Dorit, R (2015). Breached Ecological Barriers and the Ebola Outbreak. American Scientist. 103(4):256.
  • Dunham, E.J., Dugan, V.G., Kaser, E.K., et al. (2009). Different evolutionary trajectories of European avian-like and classical swine H1N1 influenza A viruses. J Virol. 83(11):5485 – 5494.
  • Meyer B, et al. (2014). Antibodies against MERS coronavirus in dromedaries, United Arab Emirates, 2003 and 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases 20: 552–559.
  • Morens, D.M. and Taubenberger, J.K. (2018). The Mother of All Pandemics Is 100 Years Old (and Going Strong)! American Journal of Public Health. 108(11): 1449 – 1454.
  • Parrish, C.R., Murcia, P.R. and Holmes, E.C. (2015). Influenza virus reservoirs and intermediate hosts: dogs, horses, and new possibilities for influenza virus exposure of humans. J Virol. 89(6):2990 – 2994.
  • Salkeld, D.J., Stapp, P., Tripp, D.W., Gage, K.L., Lowell, J., Webb, C.T., Brinkerhoff, R.J. and Antolin, M.F. (2016). Outbreaks and Emergence of Zoonotic Pathogens. BioScience 66: 118–129.

Defragmenting The Dampa Tiger Reserve: The Andermanik Frontier

September, ten years ago, we were assigned to conduct an Environmental Impact Assessment of the proposed Indo-Bangla Border Road Fencing which transect through the Dampa Tiger Reserve (DTR). After a month preparation, we packed our gears and head to Teirei Rest House. Our team comprised of our PI, Mr Laltlanhlua Zathang, ACF, Mr. B. Malsawmkima (B-a), Ms Laldinthari (Madini) and I. At Teirei, we were joined by Wildlife Guards of the Teirei Range.

Fully packed motor-boat, in the middle is our boss, Pu Tlana. The availability of the motor-boat service in this region depended upon the level of water in the Khawthlang tuipui.

We were divided into three groups, I was the leader of team 1, who stationed at Sailui. Both team 2 and 3 were stationed at Andermanik Anti-Poaching Camp, they were led by Mr B-a and Ms Madini, respectively. Our mission was to conduct a vegetation analysis along the proposed transect of the Indo-Bangla Border Road fencing.

Mr. B-a and Ms. Madini

From Rajiv Nagar, we rode a motor-boat till the Sailui Junction, where my team would camped, the other teams sailed till the Andermanik village. We fortunately spotted a Jhum hut, which relieved us from constructing a shelter. We stayed at Sailui for two nights; we cooked our own food, slept on our own beddings, hence, we didn’t bother our host, the owner of the jhum hut 😁. Our camping site was outside the DTR core area, hence anthropological activities were not prohibited.

Ms Madini and the bridge on the River Khawthlang Tuipui

Andermanik Village ~14 Km from Sailui was, however, within the core area and was about to be relocated, negotiations were going on, then. After completing our task along the Sailui-Andermanik transect, we decided to join our friends at the Andermanik Anti-Poaching camp. Instead of taking the normal path, we decided to walk down the Gundasuri stream, that drains to the Khawthlang tuipui. Our porter, whom I fondly called “Bondu” led the way, he cut the bushes and cleared the path. As we move down the stream, I could spot several pug-marks. Undoubtedly it was one of the natural wildlife corridor. The plan was to reach Andermanik by means of a raft.

In the midst of the Jungle, we encountered these jubilant kids, they swam the whole afternoon. @Sailui
Our host at Sailui
Our team and the kids in the Jungle @Sailui
Our host winnowing the paddy. While her husband was working elsewhere, she was looking after their Jhum field and their kids.
Suron, the obedient boy @Sailui. He was always ready to strike a pose 😀
Suron…among the ripened paddy
My Team at rest…Somewhere between the Sailui and the Andermanik Village
My Men…at the mouth of the Gundasuri stream that we transect
Busy Bondu, the engineer, constructing a bamboo raft

Bondu was the engineer, Pu Samuel-a and Mapuia helped him in collecting the bamboo. I could overheared them saying “rawṭhing chu sât suh, a láng ṭha duhlo…” After completion, we tried once, and found that the raft could not bear our weight, we need to cut more bamboos. During the process, a gentleman from Andermanik was solo-rafting, without much belongings. We hitchhiked him; I rode on his raft, and the other three rode on the raft that we built. After 2 hours of rafting along the Khawthlang tuipui, we finally landed at Andermanik, it was already dark.

A gentleman from Andermanik, whom we hitchhiked
Captain Bondu and crew…rafting the Khawthlang tuipui
My captain! He was swiftly paddling the raft. The bamboo culm he hold would not be shorter than 18 ft, which he frequently dipped, as if he was trying to measure the depth of the river. He didn’t realised that his dipping and retracting of the bamboo-paddle horrified his mate, who couldn’t swim! And that dipping and retracting told how deep the river was!
After a few hours, he suddenly shouted, “Gui…gui” which left me confused. Later on, I realised that he was spotting a Tuipuisatang (Water Monitor Lizard – Varanus salvator) at a distant shore! To him, it was a nutrition that perish!
A Selfie! lewll
It was dark, when we arrived at Andermanik. These two youths left, as we landed.
Inside the Anti-Poaching Camp, Andermanik…Bondu, Tlangaupa and Pu Muankima.
They were all surprised to see us at the camp. Since there was no mobile phone signals, and we were also void of radio, we couldn’t inform them.
Reuniting with my comrade @Andermanik

We stayed at Andermanik for a night and the next day, we left for Rajiv Nagar, by foot. It took us around 4 hrs to cover ~ 16.41 Km of steep and slippery paths, up and down the gorges. Knowing the consequences and the biodiversity threats that was awaiting, we proposed that if at all the border had to be fenced, it should be done at the zero boundary, not even an inch inside the Tiger Reserve. Wildlife corridors should be reserved as plenty and wide as possible. We did the best we could. After all it was our first assignment since leaving the university, two months back! When we were approached for this project, our result was not even declared! But we were energetic and dedicated, we were satisfied with our efforts, since we gave our best.

Inside the Andermanik, the Village that fragmented

Prior to its relocation, Andermanik was the only village inside the core area of the DTR. There were 200 houses, 3 primary schools, six grocery shops and a BSF Duty post. Like other Chakma community, their main religion was Buddhism and solely dependent on Jhumming for their sustenance.

A Chakma family
It was very rare to see people fetching water with a plastic container in this part of the land.
The Chakma way of fetching water
A motherly care
The Andermanik playground
Public urinal… It is a common thing in Mizoram
Mother and Child…and a cat
Power supply was not available. Some villagers harnessed the solar energy and watched a television.
A busy mother at work
Harvesting the Nawinâwk (Basella alba) leaves. They gave us some few, tried and tested, excess amount of Dangpuithu (Sidol) spoil the menu.
Communication was a problem. Since they could speak their own dialect only.
A country made daba smoker
“Pinon” in the making
A Chakma boy wearing a traditional Teng-chara
Protector of the Forest…Strike Forces and Wildlife Guards…and Bondu, my friend.
A view from the Anti-Poaching camp. In 2012, I met Pu Samuela, and he told me that Andermanik Village was relocated and those places like this were transformed into a playground of the fauna, the floral community dominated the landscape and transformed into a fawning and a stotting place for the quadrupeds.
Us

We tried our best not to imposed habitat fragmentation, but it was beyond our power whether the fencing should or should not be constructed. We were told, “It’s a matter of national security.” Though the Andermanik Village that fragmented the reserve was relocated, how would a fencing and a motorable patrolling path not fragmented the Tiger Reserve?

[Powered by Canon 1000D with 18 – 55mm IS USM]

Ramngaw leh a Zirna

Ramngaw neih zauh avanga hmingţha Mizote hian ramngaw enkawl dan te, a dimdawi dan te, hman ţangkai dan te kan thiam tawk lo hle mai a, ţawngka lama kan ngaihhlut ang aiin a takah kan ngaihlu tawk lo fo ţhin niin a lang. Hemi kawngah hian nasa lehzuala inzirtir kan ngai a, mipui te, tlawmngai pawl hrang hrang te leh Sorkar lama hemi changtu Department te phei chu nasa lehzuala an thawhho a pawimawh awm e.

Kum 1992 chhoa CYMA-in kumpuana Nungcha Humhalh a hman khan nasa takin nghawng a nei a, ramngaw hlutna kan hriatthar phah a, nungcha te hlutna pawh kan hriatthar leh phah niin a lang. Pi-Pute hunlai aţang tawha ramngaw leh ramsate thiam taka enkawl ţhin, Mizote hian kan hnam zia rang kan pensan nasat ber chu ramngaw leh nungcha te chunga ngilneihna lantir hi a ni awm e. Finna leh thiamna lo sang zelah rawmngaw humhalh kawngah harhtharna kan chang leh mêk a, a lawmawm tak zet a ni. Khawtlangin ramngaw an humhalh tam tak a awm a, chungho chu ngaw ţha tak, hawi khawthawnna atana remchang tak, khaw cheimawitu, nugchate tana tualchaina ţha tak a ni ta hlawm. Neitu nihna thinlung puin mahni khaw ta ţheuh chu uluk leh dimdawi takin kan enkawl mai a, khawdang ta leh Sorkar plantation te kan hlut lutuklo ţhin erawh hma kan sawnna tur kawng pawimawh a ni awm e.

Mizoramah hian ramngaw zau tak tak a awm a, ramngaw bawn tak erawh a tam tawh lo niin Indian State of Forest Report 2017 (ISFR 2017) chuan a tarlang a. Chutih rual chuan India rama ramngaw nei zau ber te zinga mi erawh kan la ni chhunzawm reng bawk. Heng kan ramngaw neih te hi uluk leh zuala kan zirchiana, a nihphung, a awm dan, kiam chhan leh pun theih dan tur, hman ţangkai dan tur te kan ngaihtuah nasat deuh deuh a ţul awm e. Chumi ti tur chuan mithiam neih a pawimawh a, chutiang mi chherchhuak thei tura hmalak a ngai a, chumi lama mithiam te chu Sorkar pawhin a hman ţangkai an ngai bawk.

Ramngaw enkawl dan zirna

Ramngaw enkawl dan lam hawi zirna hi Forestry an ti a, United Nations hnuaia Food and Agriculture Organisation pawhin Forestry lam zirtirna leh research hi nasa takin a kalpui a, Department hran a siam hial bawk. Kum 1990 khan NEHU chuan Mizoram Campus-ah Forestry zirna bul a ţan a, hun engemaw chen chu India Hmarchhak lama Forestry zirna sang (MSc) zir theihna awmchhun a ni nghe nghe. Mizoram University a nih hma aţanga vawiin thlengin ramngaw enkawl dan zir mi engemaw zat a chherchhuak tawh a, Mizoram leh India ram hmun hrang hrang aţanga zirlai te an ni. Mizoram University-a Department of Forestry vêk hian PhD pawh eng emaw zat a chherchhuak tawh bawk.

A sang lama zirna changtlung leh ngelnghet tak kan neih laiin, a bulţhut zirna Mizorama pakhat te mah kan la neilo hi erawh a pamhmai deuh. Forestry zirna hi ţhuanghnihin a kal a, Under Graduate (UG) hi Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR) hnuaiah a awm a, professional degree course niin kum li zir a ni a BSc (Hons) Forestry degree pek ţhin an ni. Post Graduate (PG) hi ICAR leh UGC hnuaiah (a university a zirin) awmin kum 2 zir a ni thung a, an zir zawhah MSc Agro-Forestry emaw MSc Forestry degree emaw pek ţhin an ni. Mizoram University a Forestry zirna hi UGC hnuaia awm a ni a, ICAR-in a pawmpui leh hriatpui a ni bawk a, zirchhuak te hi MSc Forestry degree pêk ţhin an ni. Tin, MZU bakah hian Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE) hnuaiah Forest Research Centre for Bamboo and Rattan (FRCBR) kan nei bawk a. Hei erawh a nawlpui tana zirna hmun nilovin Scientist rual ten an zirbingna hmun tura duan a ni. Scientist thawk erawh mi pahnih emaw chauh an awm thung.

image courtesy: http://www.fao.org/international-day-of-forests/en/

India Hmarchhakah hian Agriculture kaihhnawih zirna hrang hrang kan nei a, state hrang hrangah zirna kan neih dan a inanglo fur a, a ram a zirin zir tur hi an thlang ni awm tak a ni. UG-a Forestry zirna hi India Hmarchhakah hian pahnih (2) a awm a, Arunachal Pradesh-ah ve ve awmin, NERIST-leh Pasighat-ah a awm a. Pasighat-ah hian College of Horticulture and Forestry tiin, Central Agriculture University hnuaiah a awm a, kum 2001-a din a ni. Arunachal Pradesh pawh hi Mizoram ang bawka tlangram, ramngaw nei ţha êm êm an ni a, hetiang zirna pahnih ngawt an nei pawh hi a mawh love. Chutihrual chuan an ramngaw leh a kaihhnawih zir bingna ang chi erawh a ram mi te zirchhuah a awm manglo thung hi an vanduaina a ni.

Mizoram leh Forestry zirna

Mizoram pawh hi ramngaw kan neih ţhat dan te leh kan ramngawin enkawl a mamawh zia ngaihtuah chuan Forestry bulţhut zirna hi a tlem berah pahnih emaw tal chu nei ve awma mawi kan ni. UGC hnuai a nih loh avangin College pangngaia dah ngawt a remchanglo thung. Mahse Mizoramah ngei, Central Agriculture University (CAU) hnuaiah College of Horticulture kan neih ve tak avangin Forestry zirna bulţhut kan neih ve theih dan kawng hi awm se a duhawm tak zet a ni. Horticulture College behchhanin, College of Horticulture and Forestry tiin emaw a tihlen theih ngeiin a rinawm. Mizoram University-ah Department hlun tak a nih sa avangin Forestry Garduate te tan zir chhunzawmna turah buaina a awm lo bawk. Kan ramngaw neih te kan humhalh a, enkawl dan kan thiam theihna tura rahbi pawimawh tak a ni ngei ang. Mipui te zirtir thei tura inzirthiam tur mihring chherchhuahna kawng pawimawh tak a nih dawn avangin State sorkar pawhin hemi kawngah hian ţan la se a duhawm hle bawk. Tin, State Forest Service leh Indian Forest Service-ah te pawh hian Forestry lama thiamna nei ngei te a tam thei ang an luh hi duhthusam a ni a; National Forest Policy 1988 (NFP 1988) pawhin chutiang tak chuan kawng a hawng bawk, ngaihpawimawh erawh a hlawh lem hlei lo a.

Mizoramah hian Forestry zirna bulţhut hi nei ila, Forestry lama mithiam hi tun aia tam chhuak se, ramngaw enkawl chungchangah pawh kan ţhahnemngaihna hian nasa lehzualin awmzia a neih a rinawm bawk. Kum khata thing kan phun zat zo zai te hi a tam hle, amaherawhchu thingphunna hun leh hmun fu zan lo avanga a nih tur ang ni lo, ţhang mumal theilo leh zuih ral hi a tam zawk a ni tih chu a chiang reng mai. Chutiang zelin, kan ram mite ei leh bar zawnna bulpui pakhat lo neih te pawh Forestry zirna huangchhunga Agroforestry system an tih hnuaia mi a ni a, sawt zawk leh hlawk zawka thlai kan thar a, kan lo hmun te kan enkawl a, chul kan tih hrin leh theih dan tur pawh hi Forestry thiamna hmanga zawnchhuah theih a ni. Policy engemaw, scientific research mumal awmsilova a ler atanga inthuai buaihna tur chi ruahman fo ai hi chuan a bulthut atanga zirchian a, a zirchiang tur mithiam chherchhuah a, hman ţangkai hi a sawngsawhlawt zawkin a rinawm fo ţhin.

Ramngaw aţanga kan thil dawn leh hmuh te hi sawi dawn ila sawi sen a ni hauh lovang. A tlangpui chu kan hre deuh vek bawk awm e. Kan tan a ţangkai êm êm, a enkawl dan leh a chhawr ţangkai dan kan thiam fumfe siloh hi kan hman ţangkai lehzual theihna tura mipui te kaihruaia, zirtir thei tur mithiam kan mamawh a.  Chutiang mi chherchhuahna tur hmun chu kan tuallaiah ngei kan neih hi kan chanvo a ni. Central Sorkar duh danin (NFP 1988) kan rama thing leh mau te nasa taka humhalh a ni a, mimal huan leh rama kan thingphun te pawh a neitu ten an duh duha an seng theihloh tura khuahkhirh a ni bawk a, tin, riverine reserve avangin kan rama leiţha deuh lai chu vantlang tana hman theih a ni meuh lo bawk. Central sorkarin “state lenzawng aţanga teha za a 60 (60%) hi ramngaw a ni tur a ni,” a tih laiin Mizoram hi chuan 86.3% zet mai rawmngaw kan nei thung (ISFR 2017). Hengte avang pawh hian ramngaw enkawl lama mithiam chherchhuahna tur Forestry College min pêk hi Central Sorkar pawh hian a ba vein a lang.

Ramngaw humhalh hi mahni chauh emaw, tlawmngai pawl chauhin emaw, sorkar chauhin emaw a a vei hian a sawt mawh a, ţanho ngai chi a ni. Pawngpaw humhalh ringawt hian a chhehvela cheng te eizawnna kawng tam takah a tihţhuanawp theih avangin ramngaw enkawl dan mumal tak neih a ngai a, sorkar dan awmsa bawhchhe silo a mipui te ei bar zawnna atan pawha ţangkai tho si a enkawl a ngai fo ţhin. Chu’ng hunah chuan a zirmi te, mithiam te an pawimawh ţhin. Zirna hi a chepakai aţanga a dik a ngai a, a ler a ţhuai ringawt lova a bulţhut aţanga thiamna ngelnghet a awm theihna turin zirna bulţhut neih ţhat a pawimawh a, chutiang Forestry lam zirna bulţhut chu UG (College) aţanga inţan a nih miau avangin Mizoram hian kan mamawh tak zet a ni.

International Day of Forest 2019

March 21 hi “International Day of Forest,” World Forestry Day tia an sawi bawk, ramngaw hlutna leh pawimawhna inzirtir tharna ni atan United Nations General Assembly-in a puang a, kum 2012 aţang khan kumtin hman ţhin a ni. He ni pawimawh tak hi thupui bik neia hman ţhin a ni a. Heng thupui te hi Collaborative Partnership on Forests (ram hrang hranga ramngaw humhalh kawnga thawkho pawl) ten an thlang ţhin a; kumin thupui atan “Rawmngaw leh Zirna” (Forests and Education) tih chu thlan a ni a, a tum ber chu “ramngaw enkawl dan mumal zawkin a ţha zawnga nghawng a neih dan” inzirtir thar a ni ber awm e. World Forestry Day atana March 21 thlan a nih kher chhan hi chhun leh zan rei zawng a inchen ni, “spring equinox” a nih vang a ni bawk.

[Vanglaini Vol. XXXIV No. 66 March 21, 2019-ah tihchhuah a ni]

On the Top of Mizoram: A Royal Ascend

‎Aizawl to Sangau

It was Dec. 5th, 2012 05:30 a.m., I was awakened by the most irritating tone of all…an alarm! Waking up at such an hour in a winter morning was not in my routine, if not for a very special occasion. The previous night, I packed my backpacks, keeping everything ready for an early morning Royal ride. As usual, camera, tripod, gps, ors, chocolate, country made knife, torch,  a puan-nuam embedded in a sleeping bag etc. were in my bag. Since it was winter, no insect repellent cream was required. Tent was with B-a.

Firing my ride, I head on to our RV at Ngaizel. My friend B-a, with whom I’ll be traveling was from the West end of the city while I’m from the East end, and we’re heading south. B-a soon arrived. Filling up our fuel, we move ahead towards our destination. The plan was to reach Sangau as early as possible; which is around 230 Km from Aizawl. We took the World Bank road, and at Chalkhan we take a left turn  towards Serchhip. At Sailiamkawn, my partner was stopped by the Assam Rifle Jawans. He was also equipped with knife, camera, gps and other gadgets, may be those looks suspicious. After a while he joined me again. I don’t know why was I not stopped! After having our meal at Keitum, we continued. It was almost 02:00 p.m. when we reached the Tuipui D, where we had to wait for our Royal Enfield to be ferried accross the Chhimtuipui by a mar-boat.

At the Tuipui D pier, waiting for the mar-boat

The mar-boat service there had a special guidelines that made us to wait until two LMV arrived.

Vehicles were ferried by a mar-boat

Suspension Bridge for pedestrian

The mar-boat service here at Tuipui D is the life-line of the South-Eastern Mizoram. The service is operated by the BRTF, 7:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. daily except on Sunday. A pedestrian suspension bridge across the river was the only other option available, then.

During monsoon, when mar-boat service is not available, passengers transit, walking across the suspension bridge, catching another vehicle on the other side.

After waiting for a while, finally the mar-boat landed. We loaded our bobber, waiting for others to turn up. In less than 2 minutes, we were ferried across.

Finally we hop on, another vehicles joined us

The areas around the Tuipui D pier had been protected by the Villagers; as we transverse the river, a school of fish swum around the boat. It was so fascinating that I forgot to click a picture of them fishes!

From Tuipui D, The road to Sangau was mostly on the eastern slope of the hillocks, which make it kinda chilly. The moment when we were on the sunnier side, we have to stopped by, exposed and warm up ourselves. After reaching South Vanlaiphai, a Village next to Darzo, the sun was almost setting. The road was re-surfaced, which left lots of pebbles and made it difficult to ride swiftly. When we arrived at Sangau, it was already dark. We headed straight to our host, who was the relative of my partner.

Ticket Counter at Thaltlang

Sangau to Phawngpui

The next morning i.e., Dec. 6, 2012, we continued our journey, driving towards Farpak, the last point where a vehicle could reach. Since my partner had a permission from the CWW, to conduct his research at Phawngpui, we very oftenly had a field work there, hence, the workers were also familiar with us.

At the entrance of the core area of the Phawngpui National Park

Ascending ~ 500m with a Royal bobber was one hell of an experience. It was a fair weather road. That was not the hurdle, though. But the steepness was. From Thaltlang to Farpak, it was not more than 6 Km. Had we measure the slope percentage, it would definitely be 100% and above.

Finally, we arrived at the Farpak, we parked our bobber at the Old Rest House. We filled our gallon and bottles with water, gearing up for another 7Km uphill trek. The elevation at Farpak was ~1900m and our destination, the peak, was 2157m msl. Since it was not our first time, we were well aware of the patrolling path.

A narrow path, midway across Farpak to Phawngpui peak

Since there was no water-bodies near the peak, we had to carry maximum amount of water, and that put on another weight. On the way to the peak, sometimes, you have to crawl beneath the clumps of Schizostachyum fuchsianum. And sometimes, through the tall and thick grasses.

Rest to regain 😀

It took us 3½ hrs to reach the peak. Setting up the tent and igniting a fire were the first priorities. After which, we started our work.

Our camp at the summit

A night at the peak

An early morning portrait 😁

A view from the peak: Siachangkawn Village in the mid-bottom; Lungtian Village at the rigth extreme corner. Siaha town flooded by a mist.

On the top of Mizoram

I was accompanying my Phenologist friend. The main purpose of the trip was phenology. My comrade, B-a, how we call him, was pursuing his doctoral research on the phenological aspects of Rhodondendron vernacularly termed as “Chhawkhlei” in Mizo. Phawngpui National Park (PNP) is one of the few places where Rhododendron grows in the wild, here in Mizoram. Apart from PNP, it is also found at Tualcheng, Champhai, Ţan tlang, Lurh tlang, Farkawn and East Khankawn. The genus is confined in the Eastern highlands of the state.

Manipulating the polination of a Rhododendron vaechiatinum

Even though I often accompanied him on his field work, I have very limited knowldege of phenological sciences. What we usually did, as I could recollect, was covering the buds of a Rhododendron with a net, so as to manipulate its pollination; In a pixelated terminology, they might termed it hacking the pollination 😁. Most of the time, I was his photographer and his personal body guard. He was better in cooking, hence he cooked, while I’m better in chopping and splitting fuel woods, which I did. Like wise, we assisted each other.

Bud of R. arborea

There were at least three different species of Rhodendron at PNP. As far as my understanding is concerned, these species grows in a very specific ecosystem. Survival rate and regeneration rate is also very low. Dormancy also is long. Wildfires often threatened its survival.

PNP

Phawngpui National Park (PNP) is one of the 10 protected areas, and one of the two National Parks of Mizoram, it covers an area of 50 Km². Entry is permitted after paying necessary fees. However, collection of specimen, cutting of plants, killing, snaring and catching of wild animals are strictly prohibited. For research purpose, permission has to be acquired from EF&CC, GoM. Entering the Park without a guide is also prohibited.

Fading glory … A dry Saiburh flower…one of the most common herb at Farpak.

Two Royals at Farpak

Homeward bound

We were done! We’re homeward bound. Trekking downhill and riding downhill were equally uncomfortable. As long as the wheel rotate, it was fine, but there were moments when the wheel could not rotate but slide on the pebbles. After carefully riding downhill, we finally managed to reach Thaltlang. We halt a night at Sangau; the next morning we continue our journey back home.

Homeward bound

At Tuipui D, it was the same ol’ story, waiting for the mar boat and two other LMV. But this time, it was an HMV that turned up.

A Royal pose at the Mar boat on our way back.

After an intensive research work for years, the Mizoram University finally awarded him a Doctorate degree. You can reach him here https://www.facebook.com/malsawm.kima.7

Mau Malsawmna

Khawvela hnam chi hrang tam tak zinga mau leh rua buaipui nasa ber te zinga mi chu Mizote hi kan ni awm e. Keini ang bawkin India hmarchhaka hnam hrang hrang te leh Asia rama hnam hrang hrang, a bikin Asia chhim chhak lam hnam te pawhin an hmang ṭangkaiin an buaipui nasa hle a. Mau leh rua pawh chi hrang an ngah hle bawk. Kan hnam azirin kan hman dan a inanglo a, deh-hnanga kan  themthiam dan pawh a inthlau viau bawk.

Sihphir Puansen ram-ah hian dan lovin khua din a ni a, a vel ramngaw a chereu nasa hle. Nasa taka an beih hnuah Sihphir khawtlang chuan dan lova awm te an um chhuaka, sanctuary atan an cheibawlin an humhalh ta a, reilote chhungin ramngawah, mau hmun ṭha takah a lo chang leh ta

India ramah hian mau leh rua (tun aṭang chuan mau tiin kan sawi tawh ang) chi hrang 125 (tualṭo) leh 11 (lakluh) a awm ni a ngaih a ni a, heng mau leh rua hrang hrang te ṭona hmun belhkhawm hi 156866 sq. Km zeta zau a ni (SFR 2017). India hi khawvela mau leh rua ngah berte zinga mi niin, China dawttu ni a sawi a ni a, a ngah ber anga sawi an awm bawk. India ramah chuan India hmarchhak, leh West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh te leh Chhim thlang lam hi mau leh rua ṭona hmunpui a ni a, India Hmarchhak state hrang hrang a awmna hmun hi India rama mau hmun awm zat za a 32 zet a ni thung (SFR 2017).

Mizoram dinhmun

Mizoramah hian mau leh raw lam chi tualṭo 25 leh lakluh 10 a awm nia ngaih a ni bawk (E&F 2010). Mizorama mau zingah “Mautak” (Melocanna baccifera) a tam ber a, mau lam chi kan neih za a sawmkua zet hi mautak nia ngaih a ni. Rawṭhing, Rawnal leh Phulrua te hi Mautak tihlohah chuan a tam ber te zinga mi a ni. Kum 2009 khan Forest Research Institute (FRI) lama mithiam Dr. HB Naithani-a leh a hoten Mizoram aṭangin mau chi thar, khawvel hmundang aṭanga report a la awm lo – Talan (Bambusa mizorameana) leh Dampa mau (Bambusa dampaeana) an hmuchhuaka (Naithani et. al. 2009, 2010), ‘talan’ hi chu Mizoten kan hriatṭhan sa pangngai a ni; anmahni vêk hian Manipur ramah ‘talan’ an hmuh thu an tarlang bawk.

State of Forest Report 2017-in a tarlan danin Mizorama mau ṭona hmun zawng zawng hi belhkhawmin 3267 sq. Km a ni a, report hmasa, SFR 2011 aiin 5978 sq. Km zetin kan mau hmun a kiam thung. Hei hi a chhan chhui chian ngai tak a ni. Kum 2006 chhoa mautam aṭangin mau chi hrang hrang a tah tawlin a tam chhho zel a, mautak, phulrua leh rawthla te a tam a, kum 2012 aṭangin rawnal a tam ṭan ve leh a, tun thlengin a la tam chhunzawm a. Kum 2015 khan Zawlnuam leh a chhehvelah rawṭhing a tam tlat bawk (Vanlalfakawma et. al. 2017).

Mautam hnuhnung bera tam ho khan ngai a awh chho leh ṭan tawha ngaih a ni a, chutih rual chuan mau hmun thildang atana hman zui tak a awm nual niin a lang bawk. Tun dinhmunah hian Mizoramah hian mau pum maktaduai 706 a awm nia chhut a ni a, SFR 2011[1] aiin pum 1489 zetin a kiam bawk.

Muthi lui kama Rawnal (D. longispathus) hung

Tun dinhmunah hian Mizoramah hian mau pum maktaduai 706 a awm nia chhut a ni a, SFR 2011 aiin pum 1489 zetin a kiam bawk. Mautam nghawng ai mahin ram leilung kan enkawl dan avanga mau hmun hi lo kiam a, mau pum zat hi lo kam ta duai niin a lang.

Mizo mau nge ṭha ramdang mau?

Ramdanga an mau te lakah chuan Mizorama kan mau te hi chu a chhah zawngah chuan a chhah lem lo viaua, a pum pawh a lian lo deuh zawk. Chutih rual chuan Mizoram kan mau neihsa te hman ṭangkai dan kawng zawng silova ramdanga an hman dan anga a hman hleihtheih loh avanga Mizorama mau te hi hmantlak lo leh chhe lailet dera kan puh ṭhin hi chu kan duhthawh deuh mah mah niin a lang. DN Tewari (1992) chuan “mautak hi paper ṭha bik siam nan an hmang ṭhin” tiin ‘A Monograph on Bamboo’ tih buah a sawia, hei ringawt pawh hi bawhzui tham a ni ang.

Mizoram mau Phai lama phurh thlak tur…@Saihapui

RIPANS leh MZU lama Mizorama mau ten Cellulose an pai zat an zirchiannaah chuan mautak leh rawnal te hian khawvel ramdanga an zirchian tawh thing leh mau chi dang te aiin cellulose a pai hnem zawk a ni tih an hmuchhuaka (Pachuau et. al., 2013; 2014). Tin, MZU-a an zirchiannaah Mizoram mau chi thum – Mautak, rawṭhing leh rawnal ten khawvel tilumtu boruak thianghlim lo – Carbondioxide (CO2) a eiral hi khawvel ramdanga mau ten an eiral aiin a sang zawk a ni tih an hmuchhuak bawk (Vanlalfakawma, 2018); China mau ṭha nia an sawi ṭhin, Moso mau (Phyllostachys  edulis) ai pawhin a sang zawk nghe nghe.

Mizo Kristian te tan sakhaw dang biakna hmanrua, agarbati stick lo phurpui viau pawh hi a fuh zan em?

Mizorama bamboo vinegar siamtu langsar tak, Pu Saikhuma (SK Bamboo) chuan Mizoram tualṭo ngei a hman duh zawk thu leh vinegar a chhuah tam ber thu a sawi. Thawkkhat lai khan Agarbati stick siamna tur changchawiin mau chi thar, ram dang aţangin kan lalut chiam mai bawka. A ti nasa ṭhenkhat te kan kawm kualnaah chuan Mizoram mau hi a pan avangin a chhuak tlem deuh nain a khawng zawka, an duh zawk mah niin an sawi. Chumi piah lamah, Mizo Kristian te tan sakhaw dang biakna hmanrua, agarbati stick lo phurpui viau pawh hi a fuh zan em? Ngaihtuah tham tak a ni.

Rawtuai – mautuai leh a kaihhnawih

Rawtuai leh mautuai hi Mizo te hian kan ei nasa hle mai a, keini ang bawkin khawvela hnam hrang hrang te pawh hian an lo ei nasa ve tho mai bawk. Rawtuai khawrh hi a pawi em? Khap tur a ni em? Tih zawhna hi a ri a ring hle ṭhin, tun thleng pawha la chhan mumalloh niin a lang. Mizoram tan bika felfai taka zirbinga thultukna leh rawtna mumal tak hi a la awmlo niin a lang bawk. Rinthu leh thu puarpawlenga inhnial ai chuan a taka zirchian mai hi a fuhin a rinawm.

Rawtuai khawrh leh khawrhloh tluk zeta pawimawh chu mau pum sah leh sah loh hi a ni. Rawtuai khawrh dan chungchanga kaihhruaina kan neilo ang bawkin mau sah dan chungchangah pawh kaihhruaina mumal kan neilo niin a lang. A bik takin mau pum kan sahin a upat dan kan ngaipawimawh lemlo niin a lang. MZU-in kum 2014 leh 15-a an zirchiannaah Aizawl veng hrang hranga mau pum zuarho zawrhlai a enfiaha, heng zinga a tam zawk hi tuai tê tê, kum hmasa tuai emaw, kum 2 la tlingo emaw a ni fur tih hmuhchhuah a ni (Lalremsang et. al. 2017). Kum 3 tal a tlin hmaa sah hian mau ṭhang zel tur a ti ṭhuanawp hle a, a hung pawhin a tuar thei hle a ngaih a ni (Salam & Deka, 2007). Mau pum kan sah nasat lutuk chuan rawtuai insiam tur a tibuai pha tih hi khawvel ram danga zirmite hmuhchhuah a ni. Chutih rual chuan sah ngailoh leh a tuai khawrh ngailohnaah chuan a hung a tawta, a zungpui insiama ṭhang zel tur a ti ṭhuanawp thei thung (Salam & Deka, 2007).

Mizoram mau, Langkaih lui kaltlanga phai lama an tawlh… Pic. Courtesy: Ap-a

World Bamboo Day

Kum 2009-a Bangkok-a World Bamboo Congress vawi 8-na chuan September 18 hi World Bamboo Day (WBD) atan a puang a, hemi a chinah kumtin thupui bik neiin hman ṭhin a ni ta a ni. Kumin World Bamboo Day thupui atan World Bamboo Organization chuan “Sustainability = Environment + Society + Economy” a thlang a, mau hmanga hmasawnna ṭhang dik neih theih dan tur, environment tana pawi silo, mipui te tana hmasawnna ni si, ram economy tana ṭhanna thlen thei tur si chungchang a ni ber awm e.

Image courtesy: http://worldbamboo.net/world-bamboo-day

Khawvel ram hrang hranga zirmite chuan mau hmanga eizawng te dinhmun nasa takin an zira, mau hmanga sum leh pai dehchhuah dan ṭha zawk tur an duang chho mek zel a, a awmsa tihpun kawngah ṭan an la nasa hle. Pi-Pu hunlai aṭanga an lo hman dan hnualsuat lovin, a ti hmasawn zawng leh hralh tlak lehzual turin an cheihnum a, a tlo leh zual theih nan a vawnṭhat dan te pawh an ngaihtuah nasa hle bawk. Tin, tarlan tawh angin khawvela thlai zinga ṭhang chak ber a nih miau avangin mau hian environment siam ṭhat kawngah a thawhhlawk hle tih hi hmuhchhuah zel a ni bawk.

Mizorama Bamboo Indutry hlun ber chuan Bamboo matply leh a kaihhnawih siam nan Mautak leh Rawnal an duh ber tlat!

Mizo society leh culture-a bet nghet tak, kan rama mau te hi tun aia hman ṭangkai dan leh hlawk zawk kan ngaihtuah a ṭul a, chu chu kan bat pawh a ni. Ramdanga an tih tawh ang tih ve a, an mau ang chawk luh chiam ai chuan kan ram mau ṭhat bikna ngaihtuah chunga hlawk leh ṭangkai thei ang ber tura kan ram mau te kan hman hi kan mawhphurhna a ni. Chumi rual chiah chuan a sah hun leh khawrh dan te, enkawl dan ṭha zawk te pawh nasa leh zuala kan inzirtir a pawimawh hle bawk. Mau kaltlanga malsawmna kan dawn mêk hi kan dawn chhunzawm zel theih nana malsawmna inthup hi hailang zel turin kan puanven i sawichhing sauh sauh ang u khai.


[1]State of Forest Report (SFR) 2011 hi kum 2009 – 2010 chhunga zirchianna, kum 2011-a tichhuah a ni a, chutiang zelin SFR 2017 hi kum 2015 – 2016 chhunga zirchianna kum 2017-a tihchhuah a ni bawk.


Thulakna te:

 David C. Vanlalfakawma, F. Lalnunmawia, and S.K. Tripathi (2018). Bamboo Ecosystem: An Untapped carbon trading resources. In: Climate Change and Developing Countries (Ed. Banshaikupar Lyngdoh Mawlong). Cambridge Scholars Publishing, UK. Pp. 222 – 236. ISBN (10):1-5715-1174-X; ISBN (13): 978-1-5275-1174-3

David C. Vanlalfakawma, F. Lalnunmawia, S.K. Sen, and S.K. Tripathi, (2017). Sporadic flowering of Bambusa tulda in Mizoram: A preliminary report. Sci Vis. 17(3):160 – 162.

Environment & Forest (2010). Bamboos of Mizoram. Environment and Forest Department. Government of Mizoram, Aizawl. Pp. 1 – 206

Lalduhsanga Pachuau, C. Malsawmtluangi, Nirmal Kumar Nath, H. Ramdinsangi, David C. Vanlalfakawma, Shri Kant Tripathi (2013). Physicochemical and functional characterization of microcrystalline cellulose from bamboo (Dendrocalamus longispathus). International Journal of PharmTech Research 5 (4):1561-1571

Lalduhsanga Pachuau, David C. Vanlalfakawma, Shri Kant Tripathi, H. Lalhlenmawia (2014) Muli bamboo (Melocanna baccifera) as a new source of microcrystalline cellulose. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 4 (11):087-094

H.B. Naithani (2009). Bambusa mizorameana, a New Species of Bamboo from Mizoram, India. Indian Forester  135(9): 1291 – 1292.

H.B. Naithani, S. S. Garbyal, N. S. Bisht (2010). Bambusa dampaeana – a New Species of Bamboo from Mizoram, India. Indian Forester 136 (7): 991 – 992.

Paul Lalremsang, David C. Vanlalfakawma and S.K. Tripathi (2017). Socio-Economic Potential and marketing trend of Bamboo in Mizoram: A case study from Aizawl District. Indian Forester 143(9):737 – 744.

Salam, K. and Deka, N.K.R. (2007). In: Kalita, S.N. (ed.) Training manual on Nursery raising, commercial Plantation, preservation and primary processing of bamboo). Cane and Bamboo Technology Centre Bamboo Technical Support Group for National Bamboo Mission, Guwahati – 781 024, Assam, India

SFR (2017). India State of Forest Report 2017. Forest Survey of India, GoI, Dehradun


[Vanglaini Vol. XXXIII No. 221 September 19, 2018-ah tihchhuah a ni]